joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership whereby all the owners are together seen as a single entity
Land Law Seminar Essay 2 "While from a conveyancing point of view, there are distinct advantages to the property being held on a joint tenancy... the doctrine of survivorship may produce results which are unfair or inopportune...One is left with the position that convenience favours the joint tenancy and fairness the tenancy in common. The 1925 legislation sought to distinguish between the position at law and in equity." Mark Thompson, Modern Land Law, 2nd Edition, Page 285. Discuss What is a joint tenancy? A joint tenancy is a form of co-ownership whereby all the owners are together seen as a single entity, it is said that collectively they own the entire interest in the land but individually own nothing. However this has been criticised in Burton v Camden Borough Council1. The importance of the above statement is seen when one of the joint tenants dies as they have nothing to leave to their heirs this is known as ius accrescendi of the right of survivorship. This is one of the most significant parts of the joint tenancy as it means that the last surviving joint tenant holds the land absolutely whilst the pre-deceased joint tenants will have left nothing to their heirs. To determine whether there is a joint tenancy the law looks for four unities, the first of these possession means that co-owners are simultaneously entitled to the land and each has the right to possess
How does amount of a certain exercise effect human pulse rate?
Pulse Rate Experiment Research Question: How does amount of a certain exercise effect human pulse rate? Variables: * Controlled: Time/Amount and type of exercise * Dependent: Pulse rate * Independent: Time/Amount of exercise Hypothesis: I am pretty sure that the pulse rate will increase as the amount/time of the exercise increases. I think that if the person is fitter, the pulse rate will be slower. As we do the exercise more, the amount of glucose/oxygen in our body will probably change so this will result to the pulse rate to change as well. Background Information: During each heartbeat, the muscles of the heart contract which causes a wave of pressure which forces blood through the arteries. This wave of pressure is called a pulse. There is one pulsation for each heartbeat. The pulse can be felt at different parts of the body where the arteries are just under the skin. These places are the temples, neck, crook of the elbow, wrist, groin, back of the knee, and the inside back of the ankle. The normal pulse rate is different with age. When we exercise or do any kind of physical activity, the heart rate increases to supply the muscles with more oxygen to produce extra energy. With extreme exercise, the heart can beat up to 200 times per minute. The brain sends nerve signals to the heart to control the pulse rate. If we measure one's pulse while they are lying
Mechanics of Breathing and responses to exercise
Practical Three Mechanics of Breathing and responses to exercise Authors: Leah Frisby, Rebecca Murray, Shuchtra Ghash, Holly Franklin, Emily Gibbs, Rhian Jones, Jake Hatt, Thushe Joseph, Charlotte Hall, Emma Kirk Aims * To investigate how holding breathe for 30 seconds affects the tidal volume, respiratory rate and respiratory minute volume. * To find out how moderate exercise for 3 minutes affects the tidal volume, respiratory rate and respiratory minute volume. Introduction The respiratory system can be divided into to sections: the upper and lower respiratory system. The upper respiratory system consists of the nasal and oral cavities and the pharynx. The upper respiratory system warms and moistens the air before it reaches the lungs. The lower respiratory system consists of the trachea, the lungs and the diaphragm. The trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are the conducting zone and do not have a gas exchange role. The alveoli are the respiratory zone and gas exchange solely occurs here. The lungs are divided into lobes; the right lung divided into three lobes (superior, middle and inferior) whilst the left lung is only divided into two lobes (superior and inferior). The primary functions of the respiratory system are: * Exchange of oxygen from the atmosphere to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the atmosphere. * Providing protection from
Orthopaedics - Define the term fracture.
ORTHOPAEDICS . Define the term fracture. With aid of a diagram, illustrate the types of fractures. Fracture means the breakage of a bone, either complete or incomplete. (Oxford medical dictionary) For types of fracture see diagram (A) 2. Describe the stages of fracture healing. The stages of fracture healing are as follows; After fracture - wound bleeds and fills with clot. After one week - clot retracts and is removed by phagocytes. Capillaries and Fibroblasts go to damaged area. These cells have osteogenic potential which lays Osteoid. After three weeks - Cartilage and Osteoid is forming around the breakage. Six to twelve weeks - Osteoid ossifies to form Callus (a cuff of provisional woven bone). Six to twelve months - Cortex to cortex union (bone directly joining the fractured surfaces. 3. Identify the signs and symptoms that lead you to beleive a bone is fractured. - Pain. Most common symptom, but people have different pain thresholds, so sometimes hard to tell. Also depends on the site and how instable it is. - Swelling. Gross swelling normally means a vascular rupture. - Weakness - Loss of function. May be unable to move the limb or have difficulty. E.g. An old lady may be able to walk on a fractured neck of femur, but will limp. - Loss of sensation or motor power. Suggests nerve or vascular damage. - Tenderness - Deformity. Limb may
A method of fitness training for the components of physical fitness
A method of fitness training for the components of physical fitness Physical fitness Muscular endurance is the ability to produce repetitive movements of a muscle or muscle group and not to get tired while doing so. A boxer will need good muscular endurance because they go all out every round. It is like constant sprinting. A method of training that can be used to develop muscular endurance is circuit training. Circuit training utilizes a group of strength exercises that are completed one exercise after another. Each exercise is performed for a specified number of repetitions or for a time before moving on to the next exercise. The exercises within each circuit are separated by timed rest intervals and each circuit is separated by a longer rest period. By doing circuit training you will improve your muscular endurance. Flexibility is the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movement. Tennis sometimes requires you to place your body parts in extreme ranges of motion e.g. reaching for the ball and serving. A method of fitness training to improve flexibility is PNF also known as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching is a technique in which a muscle group is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against resistance while in the stretched position, and then is passively stretched again through the resulting increased range of motion.
Does short term exercise have a significant effect on fitness?
Research question: Does short term exercise have a significant effect on fitness? Hypothesis: No change of fitness will be seen due to short term exercise since the body will not have time to adapt or change. Increase of fitness is something that comes from long term exercise on a regular basis, not from sporadic occasions of exercise. Variables: In this experiment fitness will be measured by measuring pulse beats per minute. The degree of exercise that is done has an effect on the pulse also, not only the fitness of the person doing the exercise. Therefore the same type of exercise will be done each time during the same time period so that the fitness will be isolated as the only cause of change in pulse. To do this, time will be measured so that the pulse is measured with the same time intervals. Material: To measure the pulse a pulse-belt will be used which gives an indication of pulse beats per minute. To measure time a normal wrist watch will be used. Method: The exercise done will be in the form of running. The same track will be run each time and multiple checkpoints will be set out along the track. These checkpoints will be designated a certain time which will be kept for each time the track is run, by this an even paste will be kept for each occasion. The track goes up and down some hills and therefore it is important that the pulse is checked at the same points
Anatomy involved in bowling in cricket and a smash in badminton.
Cricket bowl Phase 1 Joint Joint type Axis Plane Movement Agonist Antagonist Shoulder (bowling arm) Ball and socket sagittal frontal Abduction Medial Deltoid Latissimus Dorsi Elbow Hinge Frontal Sagittal flexion Biceps brachii Triceps Brachii Hip (left) Ball and socket sagittal frontal Abduction Gluteus Minimus and Medius Adductor group Knee (left) Hinge Frontal Sagittal Flexion Biceps femoris Rectus Femoris Ankle (left) Gliding Frontal Sagittal Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius Tibialis Anterior Phase 2 Joint Joint type Axis Plane Movement Agonist Antagonist Shoulder (bowling arm) Ball and socket frontal sagittal Circumduction Posterior Deltoid Anterior Deltoid Elbow Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Triceps Brachii Biceps brachii Hip (left) Ball and socket frontal sagittal Extension Gluteus Maximus Illosoas Knee (left) Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Rectus Femoris Biceps femoris Ankle (left) Gliding Frontal Sagittal Dorsi Flexion Tibialis Anterior Gastrocnemius Phase 3 Joint Joint type Axis Plane Movement Agonist Antagonist Shoulder Ball and socket frontal sagittal Circumduction Posterior Deltoid Anterior Deltoid Elbow Hinge frontal sagittal Extension Triceps Brachii Biceps brachii Hip Ball and socket frontal sagittal Extension Gluteus Maximus Illosoas Knee
'Does Exercise increase the heart rate and recovery pulse?'
Lucy Gillett 'Does Exercise increase the heart rate and recovery pulse?' What am I trying to find out? In this investigation I am trying to find out if the increase of exercise, affects the heart rate and recovery rate. How will I carry out this investigation? . Firstly I will take my resting pulse for 1 minute, (which I shall take before every period of exercise that I do) 2. I will then run between 2 posts 20 metres apart for an amount of time. (either 30secs, 1min, 2mins, 3mins, 4mins) 3. Once I have carried out the period of exercise I will take my pulse for 1 minute to get my heart rate. 4. I will then take my pulse every minute after the exercise was completed, until my heart rate is back to its resting pulse. 5. I will then continue repeating this method until all the times have been carried out 3 times. 6. Once this has happened I will work out an average for each amount of exercise. What equipment do I need in order to carry out this investigation? . Stopwatch 2. Trainers How am I going to make this experiment a fair test? To get a fair test I will do the following things: . I will do each period of exercise 3 times, to get an average. 2. I will stick to the period of time that I have agreed to do. 3. I will put as much effort in to each section of exercise on all occasions. 4. I will exercise on the same surface. 5. I will take down the true
Year 10 HPE Biomechanics Assignment Due date: 11 November 2008 Task 1: Complete the biomechanics analysis done during class. Write an analysis of the results from the activities Task 2: Choose one skill from sports (eg. Shooting - Basketball o throwing a javelin) Task 3: Using your knowledge of biomechanics, give a detailed explanation of how biomechanical principles are in force during that event. Minimum word count 500 words Task 4: Present your findings in a 3-5 minute presentation - BE CREATIVE Task 5: Marks will be allocated for our behaviour during other people's presentation My Analysis of the skill should cover the following areas: * Gravity/Centre of gravity * Newton's 3 laws * Force * Acceleration * Levers (How your bones and muscles act as levers) Definition of Biomechanics: * The scientific study of the physical movement and structure of living creatures. Task 1: Results of biomechanics analysis activities Measured in metres Lying down: 15.6m Sitting down: 25.3m Standing: 29.9m Run-up throws: 49.8m Kneel down: 30.9m Class Average in metres Lying down: 16.785m Sitting down: 21.4105m Kneel down: 24.53m Standing: 26.458 Run-up throws: 36.0805m My result in Lying down wasn't good compared to the class average. My result was 15.6 however the class average was 16.785. But my result in Run-up throw was much better than class average which
How does exercise affect my pulse rate?
Experiment: How Does exercise affect my Pulse rate Planning In this experiment I am trying to find out how exercise affects my pulse rate. I will do this by exercising then measuring my pulse rate. In this experiment I will use 2 pieces of equipment, a stopwatch and calculator. I will use the stopwatch to time how long I exercise for and the measure my pulse rate and I will use the calculator to work out my pulse rate. I will first exercise for 15 seconds then measure my pulse rate for 15 seconds then rest for 2 minutes then repeat the process. I will do this 3 times then increase the amount of time I exercise for to 30 seconds and do the same but exercise for 30 seconds. I will increase the amount of time I exercise for by 15 starting from 30 then, 45,60,75 and then 90 seconds. I will make sure results are reliable by repeating them if they are slightly unreliable. I predict that as the amount of time I exercise for increases so will my pulse rate. To make sure the experiment was safe I moved away all the chairs, tables etc around the area I was exercising in so I would bump into anything. Also I made sure I made sure the clothing I was wearing was suitable to the exercise I was doing. Results Pulse Rate (Beats per minute) Exercise 2 3 Average 5 seconds 12 20 24 18.7 30 seconds 14 18 40 24.0 45 seconds 44 60 75 59.7 60 seconds 48 64 80 64.0