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First Aid for Sprains and Concussion

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________________ ?I stand for ice and the application of which should be carefully controlled because simply putting on the area of injury will produce blistering and ice burns, so it should be wrapped in another layer, preferably a damp tea towel. Time should also be kept in mind and about 15mins, frequently, should reduce the swelling in a sprain and ease the pain. Next is ?C? for compression which compresses the blood capillaries, allowing the blood flow to the injury to, to be minimal thus making the swelling and inflammation of the sprain and minor as can be. Finally is ?E? for elevate. Blood pressure reduces with height as it is lower in our brain than our toes, so the higher the limb is above the heart, the less force there is within the blood vessel at the area of injury, to cause bleeding and worsen the injury. The ?RICE? technique consists of 4 procedures that are to be preformed when and where applicable. ?R? stands for rest which many sportsmen/women don?t like because many of them believe that they?re fine but actually, by continuing their sporting activity, they force more blood to the site of the injury and this can induce excessive bleeding or, in the case of a sprain, cause more swelling and bruising to occur creating a risk of making the injury far worse making the participant a hazard to them selves and others. ...read more.


Check the area and make sure you and the people around you are safe. After this, move onto ?R? which stands for response. Can the casualty hear your voice? Can they open and close their eyes? Are there any movements? Do they respond to touch? ?A? stands for airways. Is there a blockage in the throat or have they swallowed their tongue? Is the head in a suitable position? ?B? stands for breathing. Can the casualty breathe clearly? Once the airway is clear, is there any other problem - the lungs for example? ?C? stands for circulation. Is there a pulse? Is the heart beating? Is the pulse weak / strong / racing? An unconscious casualty should be treated first because, firstly, they cannot tell you what is wrong with them and secondly, they are unable to do anything which would prevent the injury becoming worse such as keep their tongue up. An ambulance should be called to assist in treating an unconscious patient because: 1. They have more equipment at their disposal. 2. If the patient is worse than first anticipated then they have the means for a quick transfer to the hospital. Head Extended, The Patient Needs To Be On Their Side, And Limbs Need To Be Positioned To Keep Them Stable. ...read more.


Protective Equipment/Clothing Items such as Helmets, goggles or other clothing or equipment designed to protect the wearers body, are quintessential when taking part in a sporting activity. They are important because they allow the participant to be protective from serious damage or harm such as concussion and sprains, as mentioned before, thus making the participant as safe as they can make themselves. Appropriate footwear is also extremely important when doing a physical activity as different types of terrain that the activity will take place on may differ from place to place (e.g. if the ground was unbalanced) Also ?acts of nature? such as rain or snow could be hazardous if the incorrect footwear isn?t worn. ________________ Officials have the responsibility, along with spectators and participants, to comply with the rules and regulations that are specified for sports in general or a specific sporting activity. By identifying the dangers/hazards that could be pose a threat to the health and safety of spectators and participants, officials are able to review or even create risk assessments that clearly show what the official, and others, see as a problem. By doing this, and abiding the to the rules of the activity, the official is able to contribute to the health and safety of the spectators and participants by ensuring that they have done everything they could to prevent anything happening that could jeopardise the health and safety. ...read more.

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