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Physical Education-Bones

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Introduction

Awais Ahmed Body in Sport Young Apprenticeship Structure of the Skeleton The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. When you're born you have 350 bones, as you grow older the bones join together to form one bone. When you're fully grown you will consist of 206 bones. The skeleton determines your form. It protects important organs; it helps you move, stores minerals and has blood production. Without your skeleton there would be little movement, since your bones act as levers on which the muscles pull. Bones will range in size from the tiny bones of the middle ear to the body's largest and strongest bones, the thighbones. Some bones are long and cylindrical and others are short and flat. The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. The skeleton protects many vital organs: * The skull protects the brain, the eyes, and the middle and inner ears. ...read more.

Middle

and fibula. The kneecap is also called the patella. It rides on top of the lower portion of the femur and the top portion of the tibia. The muscles and ligaments connect these bones and the space between them is cushioned by fluid-filled capsules (synovial) and cartilage. When you exercise, the muscles pull on the bones, strengthening them. The range of motion of a joint represents how far it can be flexed (bent) and extended (stretched). Joints need to move to stay healthy. If you don't use your joints for long periods of time, they can stiffen and cause the adjoining tissue to weaken. A moderate exercise program that includes low-impact aerobics and power and strength training has benefits for osteoarthritis people. Synovial Joints These are freely movable joints. Most of the joints in the body are of the synovial type. The following are the main characteristics of a synovial joint: * The ends of the bones are covered with a layer of smooth hyaline cartilage, called articular cartilage in the joint regions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Pivot Joint A pivot joint between the radius and ulna. The cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue of a ligament. This joint permits rotational movement only. Examples: Radius to Ulna, Atlas to Axis Saddle Joint In this joint, both bones have articulating concave and convex regions. One bone fits the complementary surface of the other. This permits a variety of movements, particularly in two planes. Examples: Carpal and Metacarpal of the Thumb. Movement occurring at the Synovial Joints The Movement occurring at the synovial joints during these activities are: A penalty in football: Flexion and Extension: On the Knee Joint (Patella) Protraction and Retraction: You move your leg forward and backwards (Tibia and Fibula) A Golf Swing: Flexion and Extension: You move your arms forward and back, closer and further away from you. The elbow joint. (Patella) Breast Stroke whilst Swimming: Flexion and Extension: Moving your arm forward and backward in 90 or more degree angle. The arm and the elbow joint. Circumduction: Your arms and legs moving the same way. Protraction and Retraction: Moving your les and arms, forwards and backwards. ...read more.

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