• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The cardiovascular system

Extracts from this document...


The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, all of the blood vessels and the blood. Arteries Arteries are blood vessels leading away from the heart and mostly carry oxygenated blood (apart from the pulmonary artery, see "the double circulatory system"), and have the thickest muscular walls, as they carry blood from the heart which is under high pressure. They are more elastic than veins. Veins Veins lead back to the heart and mostly carry deoxygenated blood (apart from the vena cava, see "the double circulatory system"), and have thick muscular walls, but not as thick as arteries. This is due to the fact that the blood they carry isn't under as much pressure as when it is in arteries, as it is heading back to the heart. They aren't very elastic; they rarely pulsate. Veins also have valves, to prevent the backflow of blood. ...read more.


The flow of blood is continuous, but to explain the process, I will begin at the right atrium. At this point, the blood is deoxygenated. It passes through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle, where it is pumped through the semi lunar valves and the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it deposits waste products and picks up oxygen. Now oxygenated, it travels through the pulmonary vein into the left atrium and through the bicuspid valves into the left ventricle. The wall of the left ventricle is much thicker than the wall of the right, as it has to pump blood under higher pressure to the rest of the body. The blood passes through another set of semi lunar valves and out of the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and to the rest of the body, where it loses oxygen to the muscles and takes away any waste products. ...read more.


People who actively smoke cigarettes not only put themselves at risk, but also cause a hazard to people around them with passive smoking. The composition of blood Blood does not only carry oxygen and waste, but also acts as a defence against illness and injury. It is composed of: > Red Blood Cells - Carry oxygen by bonding with it to form oxyhaemoglobin. Haemoglobin gives them their red colour, and altitude training or blood doping (which is banned) increases the red blood cell count. > White Blood Cells - Fight disease by engulfing pathogens, or producing antibodies to kill them. > Platelets - Help to clot blood, and repair torn blood vessels; they rush to the site of injury when you are hurt. Haemophilia is the best known of clotting diseases, which is when the body has a lack of clotting agents. > Plasma - This is 90% water, and transports salts, hormones and nutrients. 55% of blood is plasma, and 45% is made of red and white blood cells and platelets. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Anatomy and Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Anatomy and Physiology essays

  1. Conduct the Queens Step test (provided) for all 4 students. Record the resting heart ...

    As a result of training, cardiac output increases as a product of the increase in stroke volume. Despite this, a 6 week training program does not majorly affect cardiac output. There is a bigger change of cardiac output during maximal exercise.

  2. Fatigue - affects on the body

    Work rest ratio should be 1:3 this means for every 1 minute of work you should get 3 minutes rest. A set of exercises should not exceed more then 1 minute so 6 x 10 second reps in set. After each set there should be about 3-10 minute rest to allow the energy system to recover properly.

  1. Step-by-step system to gain muscle from a nutrition standpoint.

    The resistance and intensity is kept high. 21s -- The range of motion for 21s is split into three parts. Seven repetitions are performed at the top part of the motion, seven reps at the bottom part and finally seven reps throughout the full range of motion.

  2. Circulatory system and blood

    The average adult's lungs contain about 600 million of these spongy, air-filled sacs that are surrounded by capillaries. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. Meanwhile, the waste-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon dioxide into the alveoli.

  1. How muscles and joints are used by different sportspeople.

    To mature in a healthy way, bones need protein, calcium, and other minerals. Bones begin to form and grow in the embryo. At birth we have about 300 bones. Some of These joins join together and as a adult we Have about 206 bones.

  2. Exercise and Health.

    Research has shown that insulin resistance can also be caused by defects in the liver that lead to a decrease in hepatic glucose uptake and consequently prolonged hyperglycemia (Defronzo, Ferrannini and Koivisto 1983). This results in a sustained basal hyperinsulinemia and therefore decreased insulin building, which is also contributed too by alterations to the beta cells.

  1. Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation

    Below is an example demonstrating a clear 'break point' of the lactate threshold and displays the position of which the OBLA occurs. To calculate the position of the lactate threshold will enable athletes to exercise at the appropriate level. Tesch (1978)

  2. Monitoring Food and Its Effects on the Body

    It is hypothesis that a) As the level of physical activity increases, the active metabolic rate also increases. Though there are some limitation that has to be acknowledge and one of the limitation is only being able to record the food diary for two weeks.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work