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GCSE: Politics

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  1. Alexander, a True Liberator

    Religion and social class were no longer barriers for entry to school, the faculty had the authority to control their administrations, and women were permitted to teach. Also, the Crimean war exposed the need for the immediate reform in the army, and thus, the Czar reduced the term of service from 25 to 6 years, as well as established military schools to train officers. Nonetheless, the Czar's reforms failed to generate stability or consensus in Russia. Both the peasants and the landowning nobles contended that the land lawfully belonged to them and were frustrated by the emancipation settlement that had ended serfdom.

    • Word count: 786
  2. Argentina and Chile revolution

    A few days earlier, the Plaza de Mayo below had been full of citizens venting their rage against the military government that he headed. Now, in the wake of the Falkland Islands invasion, the square was full of cheering people. His regime, vilified for human rights abuses in the "dirty war" and with failed economic policies, had been transformed into a government that had salvaged national honour by recovering the islands. Galtieri, an impulsive man with a liking for Scotch, acknowledged the cheers.

    • Word count: 582
  3. Use sources E, F and G, and your own knowledge, to explain why the government was concerned about the morale (sprit and attitude) of the British people in the autumn of 1940.

    On 7 September 1940 the first German bombing attack on Britain was launched at night against London. This marked the end of the Battle of Britain and the beginning of the Blitz, the bombing on British cities. Hitler change of tactics was partly in response to British bombing raids on Berlin, but the main response was to try to break the morale of the British people and Churchill to sue for peace. Though the Luftwaffe had failed to defeat the RAF and Operation Sealion was called off, the bombing attacks on major cities continued throughout the winter causing much damage.

    • Word count: 835
  4. Mahatma Ghandi

    In 1893, Gandhi had sailed to South Africa to do some legal work and had established a law practice, spending 21 years opposing prejudiced legislation against Indians after seeing the discrimination to his people. Being there, Gandhi had found out about the limited and unfair policies of the British after being thrown off a train for having a first class ticket and sitting next to whites from the British Empire. After this critical incident, he was inspired to develop a technique of direct social action to use against the British rule.

    • Word count: 821
  5. California Gold Rush "The discovery of gold in California created more winners than losers!" How far do you agree with this view?

    First there was the "overland route", a treacherous journey across the land. The "panama route" which was a sea route although crossing land at panama. Last there was "round the horn", this was completely by sea and went round the cape horn. None of these were pleasant journeys although ones that many people would take in the hope of success and wealth. The "Gold Rush" that began in 1848 certainly produced some winners such as the transport providers. These were the people who made the wagons and owned the ships.

    • Word count: 513
  6. Why were the Conservatives weak 1846 - 1865?

    He didn't go to University or College, but was home tutored. Also Derby was supposed to be a hypocrite, opportunistic and unprincipled. Alongside Derby worked Disraeli, who was second in command and was leader in the House of Commons. Disraeli was untrustworthy because of the fact he was a Jew. Disraeli had been private educated and was a brilliant debator, witty, sarcastic, quick-minded and very intelligent. The Peelites disliked Disraeli, as he used to cause them problems. Peel, Gladstone, Lord Newcastle, Lord Aberdeen, Sydney Herbert and James Graham were talented politicians, who joined the Peelites after 1846 the Repeal of the Corn Laws.

    • Word count: 517
  7. Outline and Explain the Principal Characteristics of Contemporary American Political Opinion

    is a subjective term usually implying a successful and satisfying life. The term usually implies financial security and material comfort, and is a state of life that is dreamt of by a majority of the American population (as well as being the term widely used to lure substantial numbers of European immigrants at the end of the 18th century). Many Americans subconsciously refer too this idea when shaping their political opinion. They look too find the party that will provide them with the ability too have a successful life with a high income.

    • Word count: 582
  8. New Liberalism and the Rise of the Labour Party

    This meant that the government used economic policies that relied heavily on free trade. When applying this to social policy, it indicates minimal government involvement. The Liberal argument grew that traditional liberalism wasn't allowing people to get on with their lives therefore a new policy would have to be introduced to allow the government to step in and "give them a leg up". In 1900 the Labour Representation Committee was formed. At this time they had no impact as a political party and they only had two MPs. The rise of the soon to be "Labour Party" began after the Taff Vale (Railway Company)

    • Word count: 925
  9. Proportional Representation

    Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) are elected in one of two ways: (1) as first past the post constituency MSPs or; (2) as regional additional-member MSPs.73 are elected as constituency MSPs and 56 are elected as additional members, seven from each of eight regional groups of constituencies. This additional member system produces a form of proportional representation for each region.All MSP positions become simultaneously vacant for elections held on a four year cycle. If a vacancy arises at another time, due to death or resignation, then it may be filled in one of two ways, depending of whether the vacancy is for a first-past-the-post constituency MSP or for an additional-member MSP.A constituency vacancy may be filled by a by-election.

    • Word count: 838
  10. Sources F and G show how the women contributed to the war effort, but does not show the usefulness of what the sources actually are.

    Source F shows us that women wanted to work, but does not show us how useful the women were. This also shows how women responded to the government offering them the men's jobs. Source F is not very useful as evidence for the contribution of women to the war effort. Source G is a secondary source, which is looking back at women's war effort. It is from a school textbook, published in the 1980s and shows us the increase of women employment. But it only shows us some of the jobs that women were employed in, for example, they have left out nursing, which was an extremely important job that women did because they helped the soldiers who got hurt in the battle of Somme.

    • Word count: 808
  11. What are the major ideas of the modern conservative party?

    From this, the strands which presently exist to some extent in modern conservatism are a mixture of Thatcherism and one nation Toryism due to a mixture of both of their main beliefs or values. David Cameron the present leader of the conservative party stands more in the one nation strand than to the others. Cameron has brought around new policies to which is now known as the modern conservative party.

    • Word count: 558
  12. Source F is an advertising poster looking for female help. Before the war it was difficult for women to find these sorts of opportunities, it was extremely rare. This was an opportunity for women

    The date of this poster is 1916; this was during the Battle of the Somme. Douglas Haig (Commander in chief of the British forces in France during most of World War One) believed that a victory in this battle would lead to the downfall of the Germans. This meant there was a sudden increase in the requirements for munitions. More and more shells needed to be produced as a victory in this battle was thought to be vital. This was portrayed in the poster by a young attractive woman dressed in factory attire in the foreground as there is a soldier preparing some munitions in the background.

    • Word count: 722
  13. Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely

    This is the basis for Mills harm principle (elaborated in "on liberty," 1859): "The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others..." Similarly Hobbes and Locke recognised that since humans are greedy, selfish and power seeking, human life without authority would be like a civil war of each against all.

    • Word count: 477
  14. Poverty in early 20th century Britain

    There are however quite a few important reasons why someone would believe this quote is true. It is clear that some members of parliament cared about the poor and did not want to help them purely for their own gain. These included two very influential politicians Winston Churchill and Lloyd George who both believed the poor were not solely to blame for the poverty they groveled in. The poor law was a law devised in 1834 by parliament devised to help those the government saw as 'deserving poor'.

    • Word count: 987
  15. Politicisation of the public service

    Today's claims of a more politicised Australian Public Service have their foundation in some of the public sector reforms of the Hawke and Keating governments. More recently they have focused on the immediate replacement of six department secretaries after the change of government in 1996, the appointment of Mr Max Moore-Wilton to head the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, the 1999 dismissal of Mr Paul Barratt (Secretary of Defence), and the subsequent court finding that the government was not required to establish that the reasons for the Defence Minister's "loss of trust and confidence" in Mr Barratt were well-founded.

    • Word count: 862
  16. Factors which influence the Electorates voting behaviour.

    However, in the 1970s there was decline in the number of people voting according to their social class. This may be related to the decline of major heavy industries and coal mining. By late 1970s, this had fallen to just over half of the total vote and the decline continued throughout the 1980s confirming that the British public were moving away from voting according to class. Although people are moving away from voting according to their social class, it is still widely accepted that there is a link between class (manual labour /lower paid - professional/higher paid) and voting behaviour.

    • Word count: 999
  17. Government mishandlings was the most important reason why the general strike broke out in 1926' how far do you agree

    This meant that miners in different areas received different pay, which was seen as greatly unfair. This can be blamed on the government itself because had it have nationalised the mines it may have never occurred. Another key mishandling by the government is the fact that nothing was done to improve the mines conditions after the previous strike in 1921. The general strike occurred due to prolonged problems, which the government itself did not handle. Similarly the handlings by the government and prime minister could be said to be deficient.

    • Word count: 528
  18. What are the strengths of the UK constitution?

    Whereas a simple act of parliament can change the UK constitution. of flexibility is another strength within the constitution because power is not rigidly set. It can be distributed across the three branches of government: the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. In 1997 when Labour came to power, part of their manifesto was devolution. This meant power was distributed within the branches, meaning that Parliaments and assemblies could be set up to adhere to the needs of the region for example The Welsh Assembly.

    • Word count: 667
  19. Britain was humiliated by international opinion and made to look foolish after the Suez crisis.

    Immediately after the invasion the value of sterling started to decrease rapidly due to essential oil supplies not being able to get through the Suez Canal. This meant Britain had to use 15 percent of its gold reserves (279 million dollars worth) to keep the pound's value from plummeting even lower and causing widespread inflation throughout the country. To counter this economic catastrophe Britain tried to obtain capital from the international monetary fund but found that the USA's dominance of this organisation made it impossible.

    • Word count: 796
  20. In Charles Akers's Abigail Adams: An American Woman, this unique first lady gives us a glimpse of what a tremendous job she did with her many roles in life. Abigail Adams was a mother, a wife, an intellect, and leader.

    With all the responsibilities she had with the home, farm, and children, it is amazing how she is able to find time to juggle everything. This is one of the reasons why she a terrific role model for an American woman. Abigail Adams was her husband, John Adams, biggest supporter. Adams stood by her husband throughout his political career, even though he was never home. During his presidency, she balanced between spending time at home dealing with financial affairs and being at the new federal capital in Philadelphia.

    • Word count: 882
  21. Freedom To Try

    These limits are set on us during our childhood by our parents and as a result we age into adults being functional citizens of society. While we are children, we also have limits set by others possibly more important than our parents, our friends. Friends have a great influence on our limits of freedom. Our friends show us what we can and cannot do like our parents, but unlike obedience for our parents, we follow what our friends say because we want to fit in with them, or as adults with society.

    • Word count: 962
  22. On The Shoulder Of Giants

    The origins of government begin with the union of man and woman. This union comes from mans desire to leave an image of himself behind thus being human nature to want to form a union in the first place. Once man and woman decide they are in a good situation they can decide to form a family. When many families come together, they start to require more needs so a community is formed in order to provide resources for the people of the community. When more communities start to emerge, they may begin to require other resources so they begin to communicate with other close by communities and when they are able to sustain themselves, the state emerges.

    • Word count: 935
  23. "By 1942, SEAsian Nationalism was largely a failure." How far do you agree with this statement?

    TS: There was much disunity in the leadership ranks of political nationalist movements, this weakened the party and made it ineffective especially when organizing strikes and rebellions. Evidence: (i) Disunity among PKI leaders, as there was no common agreement and aims for the 1926 rebellion, and lack of unity, which also led to the failure of rebellion. The Dutch response showed its effectiveness when it suppressed the rebellion which outlawed the PKI. (ii) As for Thakins, there was rivalry among Burmese leaders.

    • Word count: 733
  24. During the period 800 - 1800 various rulers of Russia based their approach to government primarily on Mongol methods. Do you agree?

    Although the Mongols interfered little in Russian life, they maintained an effective control over Russia for from 1240 -1480. Some historians see Genghis Khan as a noble savage, and illiterate skyworshipper whose inspired leadership, flawless judgments of human character, and military genius catapulted the obscure Mongols to the height of world power. Others believehe is a gangster whose bloodthirsty cruelty mobilised Mongols for a worldwide rampage of death and destruction. Genghis Khan's great abilities were not alone responsible for his success, he relied on the conditions of the Inner Asian steppe and the culture of the nomads who dwelt there.

    • Word count: 750
  25. How successful was the national government in dealing with problems that it faced?

    Between 1931 - 35 economic issues were at the forefront of policies. There were four main features to the government's economic strategy. The first expenditure cuts, there was 10% reduction in unemployment benefit and government controlled salaries and the devaluation of the pound. Britain went off the gold standard in September 1931, and the pounds value fell by 20% compared to other currencies. However a weaker pound meant that British exports were cheap and therefore more competitive, the government then tried to keep the financial market deliberately low. Interest rates were lowered from 6% to 2% this encourage encouraged expansion of private enterprise as the population were more willing to borrow money when repayments were low.

    • Word count: 540

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