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Sources 'A' and 'B' mention unspecific small numbers while the others mention big specific big numbers. Source 'A' says that the fire service was good while in sources 'D' it says completely opposite. Sources 'A' and 'B' give the impression of calm while the others give the impression of chaos. 2- If you look at the origin of the sources it clearly explain why the account of these raids are different both 'C' and 'D' were official government documents they were top-secret and were not for the publics eyes while 'A' and 'B' were released by the by the government to the public.
- Word count: 3087
There are many influences operating on parliament before and during the legislative process. Explain and evaluate any three of these influences, giving examples of how parliament has been persuaded to introduce legislation.
One of these various influences on decisions made by parliament is election manifesto. Manifestos outline political parties' proposed legislative programmes and reflect the parties' political ideology. Tori's Housing Act (1980) is an example of legislation due to party pressure. The Act enabled council tenants to buy their homes for a low cost. Although election manifestos are positive influence on legislation in that the public that vote for the government get what they voted for, legislation due to political party pressure is actually quite small at less than 10%. Public disquiet is also an influence on parliamentary decisions.
- Word count: 810
To what extent are senior British civil servants still “anonymous, permanent and politically neutral?”
The higher civil service were now represented by the new senior civil service grades of 1-5, first and second permanent secretaries, the deputy secretary, the under secretary and assistant secretary. Grades 1-4 are primarily concerned with policy advice, the roles traditionally known as 'mandarins.' Civil service training was improved from its makeshift 'on the job' nature with the introduction of a civil service college in 1970. The practise of encouraging 'outsiders' also began, through the external advertisement of even senior posts, and the introduction of fixed-term contracts, performance-related pay and appraisal systems.
- Word count: 1937
Do you agree that cohabitation has made for a weaker President but a more balanced system of government?
As the force of a constitution ultimately rests upon its interpretation and how it is understood rather than the force of its words, this development might be seen to represent a divergence from what the authors of the constitution envisaged as the future of France. Parliamentary election returned majorities which supported the President time and again in 1967, 1973 and 1978. In 1981 the new President even called an election to ask the electorate to confirm their choice of president, and the desired majority was returned.
- Word count: 1934
Have you guessed it yet? Yes, this method of transport is the common bicycle. This simple, two wheeled machine is the answer to all our problems. If you where to ride to work, school or college there would be numerous benefits for you lifestyle. You would feel more awake in the mornings, you would gradually get and feel a lot healthier, and, most of all you would not be contributing any pollution, the current downfall to this earth.
- Word count: 527
It shocked me to read that they didn't have that French inscription already on there or that it had not been put on soon after St. Laurent got into office. The francophone public servants should have also been able to send memos to another francophone public servant in French, not in English (Trudeau, 119). I believe that if a francophone public servant was sending a memo to an Anglophone public servant then it should be written in English, but if it's to another francophone, then it should be allowed to be in French.
- Word count: 1416
Race Relations in the USA and South Africa since 1945 : How external pressure brought down Apartheid.
The British and Dutch colonized South Africa in the seventeenth century. Due to greater military power the British dominated the Dutch descendents (known as Boers or Afrikaners) and in the early 19th century the British took control of Cape Town because of their natural resources of diamonds and gold. In 1836 the Dutch embarked on the "Great Trek" and moved north establishing their new colonies of Orange Free State and Transvaal. This trek took place because the British had abolished slavery' given the Blacks the right to vote and had imposed taxes on the Afrikaners.
- Word count: 2203
These two chambers are the Bundestag (Federal Diet or lower house) and the Bundesrat (Federal Council or upper house). The Bundesrat has 69 members and they are appointed by the State Legislatures whereas, the Bundestag has 656 members who are elected by public representation and serve a 4-year term. They both initiate legislation, and most bills must be approved by both chambers, as well as the executive branch, before becoming law. 'Legislation on issues within the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government, such as international treaties, does not however require Bundesrat approval.'1 The federal government introduces most legislation; when it does so, the Bundesrat reviews the bill and then passes it on to the Bundestag.
- Word count: 2059
How far did life change for women; businessmen and landlords, and peasants between 1949 and the early 1960s?
There was barely any education or institutions such as hospitals, except in the Japanese-controlled areas up until 1945. But life for people in cities like Nanjing was still poor. With outrageous inflation and food rationing, people were dying everywhere, and going to drastic measures to fulfil their hunger. The Japanese used the cities and demanded shameful respect from all Chinese. If there was a hint that co-operation and respect of the Japanese was not present they would kill the person in question. The Communist won the Civil war on 1st October 1949; and a new hope was on the horizon that was going to change hundreds of millions of people's lives.
- Word count: 2180
The first change between 1850 and 1918 was the Second Reform Act in 1867 [the first being in 1932] which gave the middle classes the right to vote. There were well-organised protest campaigns going on at the time, one of the organisers being the National Reform League. They were putting pressure on the government to extend the franchise. There was a demonstration in Hyde Park that turned violent. It made the government fearful that if they did not extend the franchise they may have even more violence to deal with.
- Word count: 1106
“The Fall of the Provisional Government was due to its own Weakness not the strengths of the Bolsheviks” . Do you agree with this statement?
This was an unpopular decision, which left the provisional government in an unstable position. In July 1917 Kerensky became war minister. Though staying in the war contributed to making the government weak Kerensky had a strong personality and was a superb speaker and his strong determination and the provisional government organisation ment they were not as weak as made out and at least the leaders were in the country. Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders were not even in the country during 1917, though when Lenin did return in April that year it spread hope in petrograd.
- Word count: 792
The Conservatives had new ideas to pull voters and were well organised thanks to Middleton and Akers-Douglas. There were agents in every to make sure that voters steered towards the Conservatives. None of these things really changed in 1906. The downfall was to do with a number of Conservative weaknesses. In 1902, Salisbury retired as Prime Minister and was replaced by Arthur Balfour. Balfour was never a particularly good candidate for the job, but the party was desperate and he was the best of the available members. He did have strengths, he was good at debating with fellow members and the opposition but there were far more weaknesses than strengths.
- Word count: 705
What impact did Mao have on the lives of the Chinese people from 1949 in the following areas: economic, social and political
They were divided into categories: landlords, rich peasants, middle peasants and poor peasants. Poor peasants were encouraged to hold mass meeting where they could speak out about their poverty and about landlords who had treated them badly. Once a villager's social class had been decided, land was taken from those who had more than they needed and given to those who had none. Over 300 million peasants benefited. However, life was not so good for the landlords. Over 40 per cent of their land had been taken.
- Word count: 4261
Trying to make Dickie interested in the wrong answers. The day of the appointment Dickies dad told him it was different to a school test, 'this is different. This is a-special kind of test. They give you stuff to drink' and that the drink tasted of peppermint. 'It tastes like peppermint. Its just to make sure you answer all the questions truthfully' Dickie was confused by his father telling him this. Dickie and his dad entered the government building and entered a room numbered 404 and waited to be called.
- Word count: 1498
which makes bureaucracies in France and Germany considerably more dominant than in the Scandinavian countries where the ministerial administrative bodies' transparency and accountability to citizens leads to reduction in the civil servants' political influence. With reference to the Weberian and Wilsonian conceptions of the role of bureaucracy as a purely administrative institution where civil servants only implement decisions made by the legislature due to lacking democratic legitimacy, E. Page states that the influence of bureaucrats does certainly exceed their traditional role and has led to a dominance of bureaucrats over politicians.
- Word count: 1920
There is the First Past The Post system and The Proportional Representation system. FPTP is a very simple system which is used in Westminster today. It retains traditional single member constituencies in which the candidate who gets most votes wins the election. This system is a very clear and easy way of electing someone and tends towards a stable one-party government. Proportional Representation involves systems such as Alternative Voting, Supplementary Vote, Additional Member System and Single Transferable Vote. Alternative Voting consists of single member constituencies, but voters list preferences among the candidates. If one person gets more than 50% of the votes then that person wins.
- Word count: 2344
risk disaster areas, and have also set up aid programs like comic relief and children in need where people phone in and give any amount of money of the amount they raised by being sponsored to do something like running across Britain, sometimes some of the TV celebrates do something as well.
- Word count: 264
This was a very good happening for Mussolini because at this time the people needed somebody to look up to, to guide them through this hardship and lead them to good times. Mussolini rose from power at the exact right time and he benefited from this. The government of Italy proved to be a key factor in the rise of power for Mussolini. The Italian government was very weak at the time and became even weaker when proportional representation was introduced.
- Word count: 958
Chamberlain, reluctantly obliged to resign in favour of Churchill in 1940. By temperament, Churchill was a warrior. When he became Prime Minister, he felt that "he was walking with destiny". Driven by his passionate love for the British Empire and his equally passionate hatred of Hitler, he threw himself into the running of the war with an amazing energy for a man of his years. His was a war dictatorship, with him much more a dictator than Lloyd George had ever been. He was the grand strategist with his military chiefs clearly his subordinates. Churchill was an inspirational war leader whose major achievement was to keep Britain fighting against the odds through 1940 and 1941.
- Word count: 1867
Fortuna is the idea that everything that occurs, occurs by chance. Combined with virtu, the ability to think and act intelligently to overcome fortuna, and necessita, the obligation to face things necessary for human purposes, this states that a good leader must be prepared to help his people cope with sudden changes. For example, President Bush has given regular speeches about the September 11th attacks to keep the country in a state of ordini, which is the constant goal of order in a government. The United States Government is now using it's virtu and necessita to determine the next step - whether it be war or peace - and is trying to find the occasione - the "time to act" upon it's decisions.
- Word count: 577
How far did the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 influence the transition to majority rule in 1994?
De Klerks nationalists wanted a system that safeguarded white rights but had a multi-racial leadership. The political arguments erupted into violence on the streets again threatening civil war in South Africa. The ANC was divided and under intense pressure to create results from their supporters who were being attacked by Inkatha (the party for Zulus) who were backed by the white security forces. In May 1992 the ANC quit CODESA. Things got worse and worse. In June 1992 in Boipatong, a black township in Johannesburg was attacked by Zulu, Inkatha supporters killing 39. They were probably armed and directed by the police to cause yet more unrest in the ANC camp.
- Word count: 2565
First of all governments get involved for political motives. By that is meant that certain political parties have a strong policies towards the economy and these are expressed in their political plans to get elected. Once elected their promises made before the elections have to be fulfilled, including their policies towards the economy. The labour party for example tends to increase tax and pump more money in the social welfare system while a liberal government would cut taxes and put less money in the public sector. Political promises in not the only purely political reason for governments getting involved. Another reason is that the state could want more control.
- Word count: 684
A critical analysis of selected election literature and party political broadcasts from the general election
Also, you are meant to be sympathetic for the child because children can't vote and adults can. The child in the picture is of mixed-origin, which is the party saying that they are very freethinking. The leaflet has a newspaper feel, with a headline, logo, titles, text and pictures all in the fashion of a newspaper. It is nothing fancy, it isn't glossy or posh. It appears that against other election literature that it may have been cheaper to produce, but I believe that makes people feel that it is more honest.
- Word count: 2579
What Impact Did Mao Have On The Chinese People Since 1949 In The Following Areas: Economic, Social And Political?
Mao Zedong was to be the chairman of the People's Republic and Zou En lai the prime minister. In practise though all the power rested with the leadership of the communist party. Communist party officials (or Cadres) were put in charge at every level of Chinese society: in villages, in towns, in unions, in courts, in colleges, in radio stations, and in newspapers. This tight reign meant the people were often restricted in their actions and their beliefs. POLITICAL Officially the Peoples Republic Of China was a democracy, however, Mao had already pointed out, "Democracy is practised by the people.
- Word count: 1436