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Primary & Recencey

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An Experiment investigating the Primacy and Recency effect on the recall of a list of words. Centre Number: 11255 Candidate Number: 4087 Reference: Cox, Erika. As Psychology Level. 4 AQA Specification B, Oxford: Oxford Uni Press, 2002. Introduction Our ability to remember is influenced by numerous factors. However how well we remember depends on the nature of the material we are learning and how we process this information. A lot of research was devoted into the properties of sensory buffer, short-term memory and long term memory. These 3 parts make up the multi-store model, these stages are all different from one another in terms of how much information we are able to store in. Furthermore they also differ from one another due to how information is forgotten. Psychologists Atkinson and Shiffrin introduced the multi-store model in 1968. In addition the model has also been supported by Clive Wearing. However in 1972, Craik and Lockhart introduced the levels of processing to criticise the multi-store model. The main difference between the two is that the levels of processing concentrates on the process of memory involved whereas the multi-store model concentrates on the stores and structures it includes LTM and STM. The levels of processing has 3 different parts which build up the theory, these are: Phonemic processing, Structural processing and Semantic processing. ...read more.


The participants were firstly informed they were going to take part in a memory experiment and were debriefed with an explanation of the experiment. They were then asked to listen to a list of 20 words and after would have a minute to recall as many words remembered. The participants were reminded that this experiment was not aimed at testing their intellectual ability and were also told not to communicate with other participants whilst doing the experiment. The words were then read out with a 3 second gap between each word. After the list of words was read out, the participants were asked to recall as many words remembered within a minute. The sheets were then collected in and participants were given a full debrief about the study and my investigation (see appendix 3). Results The results showed that people remembered the first and last positioned words more than the middle positioned words. In total 81 words were recalled correctly in the first and last positioned words whereas the middle positioned words was only recalled 27 times. The Mean was 8.1 for first and last words and 3 for middle words. The mode was 6.5 for the first and last words and 4 for the middle words and also the range for the first and last words was 6 and for the middle words it was 4. ...read more.


at any time during the experiment. I'd also like to let you know that it is normal for you not remember all 20 words so don't stress about it. Appendix 2 Brief My aim was to see whether the order of the positioned word will affect the way you remember them, as you properly figured out the first and last words are easier than the middle positioned words. Your name will remain confidential (anonymous) and if you feel uncomfortable with handing in your answers then you can withdraw so don't feel pressured. And also if you want to know your results don't hesitate to come and find me. Appendix 3 Word list: 1. TV 16. Paper 2. Sky 17. Tree 3. Box 18.Form 4. Shoe 19.Clock 5. Eye 20.Paper 6. Cat 7. Hospital 8. Knowledge 9. Experiment 10. Procedure 11. Psychology 12. Guidance 13. Criteria 14. Bag 15. Door Appendix 4 Participants First and Last Positioned Words Middle Positioned Words Participant 1 7 2 Participant 2 7 5 Participant 3 7 0 Participant 4 9 4 Participant 5 10 1 Participant 6 6 2 Participant 7 7 3 Participant 8 6 5 Participant 9 6 2 Participant 10 8 3 Total 7+7+7+9+12+6+7+6+6+8 = 81 2+5+0+4+1+2+3+5+2+3 = 27 Mean: 81 / 10 = 8.1 27 / 9 = 3 Mode: 7 + 6 / 2 = 6.5 3 + 5 / 2 = 4 Range: 12 - 6 = 6 5 - 1 = 4 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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