How Racist Are You?
How Racist Are You? In Jane Elliot's recent experiment her aim was to show white people who typically had blue eyes how it felt to be victimised and manipulated. Jane Elliot uses interesting methods to work her results such as; Editing techniques, the setting of where the experiment took place and the language in general. For the background setting and scenery, Jane Elliot uses posters on the wall with bold statements such as "GO HOME BLUEYS". Many posters alike this one, can have a very daunting, unwanted effect. Another aspect of the experiment involved in the scenery is the waiting area. The brown eyed were left in a large room with plenty of comfortable seats where as the blue eyed were left to wait for 2 hours in a small room consisting of only 4 chairs with roughly 15 of them there. In my opinion things like this would give Jane Eliot the manipulation results she wanted from doing something like this. The editing of the video footage did a great job of highlighting the impacts and comparisons especially. The cameras did a great job of capturing the expressions on peoples faces from both the blue and brown eyed groups. What the editing did well was to highlight the comparisons. For example during the video, when a bold statement has just been said by somebody, the faces of the blue eyed and brown eyed can be compared quickly between one another for the maximum effect
Understanding Addictive Behavior
As more women join, or rejoin, the workforce the family structure has been under a great deal of stress. The women, who used to perform the job of indoctrinating the children in the family's values and beliefs, have been taken out of the picture for large amounts of time. To fill this void, schools have taken over the job of teaching family values. In many cases, almost all education about drugs and the values of use/non-use are left up to the schools because the parents just don't have the time to connect with their children about this important topic. So I believe it is important for the high school to provide drug education to its student body. The typical high school health class doesn't spend most of its time on drug facts or on teaching the values of staying away from drug use. The value message that many families are expecting the school's health program to teach is watered down. From a student's perspective, the schools seem to be mixing the messages about drug facts, drug effects and reasons a person might use drugs. The classes themselves are boring and repetitive with regard to the clinical affects of drugs. Schools seem, more and more, to be teaching the belief that not only will drugs be used by high school students but that the reasons for drug use are more important than the fact of the use or how to prevent use at all. The classes spend more time on
(i) Outline one psychological method of managing stress. (3 marks) A method of managing stress is hardiness training developed by kobasa in 1979 here this method works by assessing peoples levels of hardiness then offering them a series of increasing that hardiness here they: try to change the way the person appraises the threat level of the stressor and their ability to cope with it. (ii) Outline one limitation of this method. (3 marks) A limitation to this method is that it takes a lot of time and money and you have to show a high level of commitment to the process. (b) Describe the procedures and findings of one study of the workplace as a source of stress. (6 marks) Johansson (1978) took two groups of workers at a Swedish saw mill, one was a group of 14 finishers this job was repetitive and isolated but very highly skilled. The other group were the "low risk" of 10 cleaners whose work was more varied and largely self paced they were also allowed to socialize more with the other workers. To find out the stress levels Johansson recorded levels of stress hormones on work days and rest days, he found that the high risk group of finishers secreted more stress related hormones on work days than on rest days and higher levels than that of those in the control group of cleaners, the finishers also showed more signs of stress related symptoms e.g. Headaches and a higher case
What is Free Will?
What is free will? To have free will we must be able to choose our behaviour- it is not determined by either the environment or our genetic inheritance or some form of soft determinism such as the Cognitive Perspective in Psychology would argue. Behaviourist argue that we do NOT have free will because our behaviour is determined by the environment, current or previous environmental experiences which will determine how we behave- we do not have a choice. To illustrate the behaviourist ideas we can consider the work or studies of firstly Pavlov. Pavlov showed how reflex behaviours could be conditioned by various neutral stimuli to become associated with an unconditioned stimulus to evoke a conditioned response such as salivation. This work was further supported by Watson's study on Little Albert which showed that humans could be conditioned to fear a previously 'un-scary' object which as a white rat. This study showed that Albert did not have free will, he was conditioned by the environment to fear the rat i.e. His behaviour was determined by the environment. However, often researchers such as Minoke found that it is easier to condition a fear in animals of snakes rather than flowers or guns... but this behaviour is still not free will rather it is genetic or biologically determined behaviour. In contrast to classical conditioning which appears to refute the idea of free
"Describe and evaluate Freud's psychoanalytical theory of development"
"Describe and evaluate Freud's psychoanalytical theory of development" (24 marks) There are three aspects to Freud's theory of personality development. Firstly the structure of personality (id, ego, superego), defence mechanisms and the stages of psychosocial development. According to Freud personality develops as an outcome of these three aspects. The id is located in the unconscious mind and is the source of innate sexual and aggressive instincts. The emphasis is on immediate gratification, for example, a young child wanting a toy NOW. The ego is the conscious, governing part of personality and develops in the first two years of life as a consequence of the infants experience. The ego modifies the demands of the Id, deferring gratification until an appropriate time / place. The superego represents the child's conscience (morals, right / wrong) and develops at around the age of five. The superego is formed as a result of the process of identification with the same-sex parent, in order to resolve to Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls. Freud also suggested that conflict between personality structures creates 'ego defences', leading to personality characteristics. These include intellectualism (thinking about threats in ways that allow emotion to be eliminated), denial (refusing to accept the existence of a threat), projection (attributing undesirable
Discuss and Evaluate Some Fundamental Assumptions of Positive Psychology.
DISCUSS AND EVALUATE SOME FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY In previous years psychology has tended to focus much of its attention on the understanding and repairing of negative aspects of human nature, for instance depression and prejudice. In doing this it has neglected the finer qualities of life. Positive psychology is concerned with emphasising factors that contribute to happiness and well being, rather than trying to treat deficit and pathology. This assignment aims to highlight some of the fundamental assumptions of positive psychology, whilst at the same time addressing any major criticisms. A key figure in the positive psychology movement is Martin Seligman. Seligman Believes that modern psychology has been so preoccupied with relieving any factors that may make life miserable, that it has forgotten about those that produce a more enjoyable existence. According to him, social sciences in particular, view human strengths and virtues as mere fantasy, whilst negative motivation and human flaws are viewed as authentic. As a result of this, human beings have often been disregarded as passive victims of society. Seligman aims to correct this unbalance by promoting the investigation into positive areas of psychology. Seligman proposes three 'desirable lives,' the first one being 'The pleasant life.' This refers to any positive emotions that arise
How can Freud's Psychodynamic model help me to understand and change my life?
Richard Small Introduction to Counselling [03/03/04] How can Freud's Psychodynamic model help me to understand and change my life? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was the father of psychodynamic therapy. His work built upon what had been done by Brewer before him. One of his patients Anna O labelled his method as being 'the talking cure'*. During this essay I shall briefly explain Freud's main theories on the human personality and then examine how these can help me to understand and change my life. * An Introduction To Counselling. P80 Freud believed the human psyche is divided into three areas the conscious, preconscious and unconscious*. In the unconscious exists the Id. This is the instinctual life force within us. Two forces are at work within the Id, Eros a drive for love and Thanatos a drive for destruction**. In our day-to-day lives we are unaware of the effects our Id has upon us, Freud argues that hidden forces from the Id govern most of the things we want to do. The Id has no time dimension and memories trapped within it remain emotionally charged***. * Teach Yourself Counselling. P121 ** Teach Yourself Counselling. P121 *** Mastering Psychology. P242 The Ego helps to mediate between the Id and the outside world, known as the 'reality principle'*. It is the part of ourselves, which enables us to fit into society. It
The Fun Theory
<Oral Presentation> Jeongmi Lee Good afternoon, everyone. I hope all of you will concentrate on my presentation. But if you cannot find it fun and interesting anywhere, no matter how hard I try to appeal, everything I tell you will just go in one ear and out the other. Then, my presentation must be really fun to you according to 'the fun theory.' Have you heard about 'the fun theory'? Now I will start off by showing you an interesting movie clip to give a hint about my topic to you. ( PLAY THE CLIP - 'Piano Stairs') This is one of the most famous video clips about 'the fun theory', concerning the test in a Stockholm subway station where a staircase was converted into working piano keys. As we saw in this clip, making piano stairs was the only change which convinced commuters to take the stairs over the escalator in this experiment. "The Fun Theory" is based on the idea that making the world more fun can improve people's behavior. Several experiments by Volkswagen, launching their brand-new eco-friendly series, proved the fun theory. One of them is what you saw just now. This campaign is an initiative to get people to change their careless behaviors by allowing them to see the fun side of acting responsibly. Then, what makes 'the fun theory' work well? The effectiveness of 'the fun theory' can be divided largely into two
How do external factors affect a child's development?
HOW DO EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECT A CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT? A person's personality and moral values are usually developed during their childhood according to the experiences in this period of their lives. Childhood is one of the most delicate stages in a person's lifetime. Therefore, it should be taken seriously within the individuals that surround them. Being careful with the actions and decisions that they make in their presence, which may be crucial for the youngster's development. The basic reason I opted for this topic is that many people aren't aware about what factors can affect a child, and how these factors influence them on upcoming stages of their life. The external factors that affect a child's development are: technology, economy, and vices. Technology has a great influence in a child's development . In today's society we are surrounded by high-tech devices and other kinds of products that ease our everyday life. Children that live in suburban areas, or in the countryside, mostly in undeveloped countries, are usually unaware of these devices. Therefore, they may be taken as ignorant in today's society. Whilst children in big cities are usually familiar with these gadgets. Unfortunately, sometimes there are side effects, such as: misuse of technology. This happens when an individual doesn't give the device its proper function. For instance, spending too much time on
'Old age is a shipwreck' refers to a stigma of an historical view of the inevitable, universal deterioration attributed to age (Lemme, 1995). It contrasts sharply with the more recent use of a butterfly as a metaphor to describe aging as having continu...
'Old age is a shipwreck' refers to a stigma of an historical view of the inevitable, universal deterioration attributed to age (Lemme, 1995). It contrasts sharply with the more recent use of a butterfly as a metaphor to describe aging as having continued potential (Perlmutter, 1988). The concept of cognitive development may have arisen as a result of the convergence of two major perspectives in psychology; cognitive psychology and life-span development. To begin to understand the causes of cognitive change, it is empirical to investigate the four major areas of cognition; intelligence, memory, creativity and information processing, and then compare and contrast them across the three stages of adulthood; early, middle and late. It is also important to consider different stages of development, research designs and the physiological changes of a human being to be able to completely understand the causes of either the growth or decline of cognition as we age. It then comes down to the continuing debate regarding the aging persons cognitive ability, do we improve with age or are we deteriorating each day after we reach our potential peak? Do we take on the decramentalist point of view or the continued-potential perspective? Is it the shipwreck or the butterfly? It was well over 100 years ago since Sir Frances Galton attempted to explain, define and measure human intelligence