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The psychoanalytic approach to psychology is based on the system of psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud (1859 - 1939). Freud was interested in studies of the unconscious mind and mental illness

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Introduction

Zo� Wood Psychology Freud's psychoanalytic approach to psychology Tutor: N. Warmsley 19th October 2005 Freud's Psychoanalytic Approach to Psychology The psychoanalytic approach to psychology is based on the system of psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud (1859 - 1939). Freud was interested in studies of the unconscious mind and mental illness. He preformed studies to look into human personality, psychosexual development and conducted method of treatments to determine the causes of neurotic mental illness. Freud thought that mental illness was caused by early childhood trauma of which treatment for such illness could only be successful when these childhood memories were dealt with and overcome. He developed his own technique to try and remember and overcome the events from their past that had disturbed their development. He made his patients describe anything that came into their mind no matter how silly they thought it may be. This technique helped Freud determine the cause of the mental illness and encouraged the patient to resurface repressed memories. Freud thought this would help them come to terms with the events helping overcome the illness, which was said to be 'removing the neurosis'. ...read more.

Middle

There are 2 types of anal fixation. Phallic Stage - This occurs from 3-6 years old, when the libido fixates on the genitals. Sexual pleasure is obtained through stimulation of the genitals. The key event at this stage is the attraction to the parent of the opposite sex together with the envy and fear of the parent of the same sex. In boys this situation is called the 'Oedipus Complex' and in girls it is called the 'Electra Complex'. Boys experience 'castration anxiety' caused by the fear of the fathers punishment for the desire for his mother, which is overcome when his conscious comes to realise that incest is wrong. Girls on the other hand experience 'penis envy' believing that they once had a penis, but due to castration has lost it. She becomes hostile and aggressive towards her mother who she believes did the castration and a special tenderness for her father. This is overcome when the girl's affections are directed towards other males. The Latency Period - This occurs from 5-12 years when the libido is de-sexualised and directed out into peer group activities. ...read more.

Conclusion

The second part of our personality comes within the next three years, which Freud called the Ego. As the child interacts more with the world they learn and understand the needs and desires of others. It is the Ego that works to satisfy the Id, as well as considering others. Eventually, usually after the phallic stage of development, the Super-Ego develops. This is the moral part of our personality letting us know what is right and what is wrong. Freud's theories brought with them a lot of criticism. Many psychologists thought Freud's theories were imprecise and un-testable, as in the latency period of psychosexual development all experiences and sexual activities in the earlier stages are repressed. This meaning the individuals will have no memories of these experiences, therefore they can not be proven. His theories were said to be unfair in the way they had been studied. It was based on a small sample of people which were middle class, middle aged Jewish women, most of which had mental illnesses. These factors such as age, gender, culture and mental state should have been considered trough Freud's studies as they could well be factors that also affect the way in which we develop mentally and sexually and could differ from each individual dependent upon these factors. ...read more.

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This is a very succinct essay that reads very well. It is sufficiently-sized for a coursework piece and easily satisfies the question and the mark scheme. The candidate goes to excellent analytical depth with regard to the perspective and confidently. ...

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Response to the question

This is a very succinct essay that reads very well. It is sufficiently-sized for a coursework piece and easily satisfies the question and the mark scheme. The candidate goes to excellent analytical depth with regard to the perspective and confidently. The essay could be more cohesively structured as a full essay with long paragraphs, how this appears to be a project and would therefore have sub-headings as seen here. The sub-headings certainly help guide the essay, cutting up the information to make it more digestible and this shows signs of someone who has made decisions to convey their information as clearly and accurately as possible.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis here is very good. There is a very in-depth analysis of each of the parts to the human psyche plus and good knowledge of when each section of the mind is introduced as a part of the human personality. The understanding of Freudian theory is delicately implemented into an excellently detailed description and understanding and subsequent analysis of the Theory of Psychosexual Stages, and this naturally encourages a brilliantly expressed analysis of the theories.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication is very good. From and English perspective, there is a very good handling of grammar, punctuation and spelling, helping the conveyance of information to be as clear and precise as possible. As well as this, the candidate utilises a variety of psychologically-orientated vocabulary and each is spelt correctly and integrated into the essay appropriately. All this gives the examiner clear indication of a candidate who know who to critically analyse using the specialist language the subject of psychology requires.


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