• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Investigation Into The Neutralisation Of Acids

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Investigation Into The Neutralisation Of Acids Introduction Neutralisation is when you make a acidic or alkaline substance neutral by adding the other to it. Whatever the substance, when you neutralise it, a salt is always formed. I will be trying to find out the stronger out of a variety of Acids and place them into a rank order from strongest to weakest using neutralisation. Research Acids is the name given to substances that have a pH value lower than 7. As the pH gets lower, the more acidic the substance gets. Acids react with most metals to produce hydrogen and form a salt. The salt forms because the metal takes the place of the hydrogen in the acid e.g. Sodium Nitrate. Acids are caused by the amount of H+ (hydrogen) ions contained, the more H+ ions then the lower pH and the stronger the acid is. This is because there are more H+ ions to react. Different acids have different H+ concentrations so if you have two acids of the same concentration it does not mean they will be the same strength. ...read more.

Middle

--> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + Cl- --> Na+ + Cl- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) --> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Nitric Sodium Hydroxide + Nitric Acid --> Sodium Nitrate + Water NaOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq) --> Na NO3 (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + NO3- --> Na+ + NO3- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq) --> NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Ethanoic Sodium Hydroxide + Ethanoic Acid --> Sodium Ethanoate + Water NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) --> NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + CH3COO- --> Na+ + CH3COO- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) --> NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Prediction I predict that my results will show the order of acids to be as follows (strongest to weakest): * Sulphuric Acid * Nitric Acid * ...read more.

Conclusion

This proves there must have been something wrong as heat is given off all until the point of neutralisation, as that is when all of the ions are used up in the reaction so no more heat is produced. Evaluation I believe that my experiment was conducted quite precisely but there are still quite a few things that could possibly vary the results, such as: * I could have put a lid on the beaker to stop any heat from escaping * I should have stirred the mixture between adding acid to allow all reactions to take place * I could have used smaller amounts of acid and/or a longer time span to get more precise results * As the readings on the Datameter kept changing up and down I had to choose one to write down so this may not be precise * I could have measured the acid/alkali more precisely by using better apparatus instead of plastic measuring tubes as these tend not to be too accurate and always have some left in the bottom after tipping into the beaker * All starting temperatures should have been the same * The polystyrene cup could have had some residue on it from previous experiments which would dramatically alter my results * * * * ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Chemistry Investigation on neutralisation reaction.

    5 star(s)

    For my equation I need to know the mass but I only know the volume. Assuming the density of our solution is the same as water, 1000kg/m3=1g/cm3. I shall now work out the number of moles in 25cm3 of 2 moles/dm3 of sodium hydroxide.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation into the effect of acid/alkali strength on the heat change when acids and ...

    5 star(s)

    measured, then the acid should be placed in the polystyrene cup and its temperature taken. The temperature of the alkali should also be taken. Then the acid and the alkali should be mixed in the polystyrene cup. The thermometer should be put in the cup after the alkali has been put in, and the peak temperature, should be noted.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enthalpy of Neutralisation.

    3 star(s)

    This should mean hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid should leave chloride and sulphide salts as well as pure water. Some examples of neutralization and its products found in labs are: * Nitric acid + magnesium oxide magnesium nitrate (salt) + water * Hydrochloric acid + calcium hydroxide calcium chloride (salt)

  2. Investigation to find out the factors affecting heat of neutralisation, and then choosing one ...

    KJmol-1 -53.5 KJmol-1 -46.5 KJmol-1 NH4OH -54.1KJmol-1 -50.7 KJmol-1 -42.8 KJmol-1 From these results we can see that they do indeed follow the pattern that I outlined in my predicition, and as it is supported it is likely to be correct.

  1. Analysing the ethanoic acid concentration in different types of vinegars.

    Maximum % error = Maximum possible error/ volume used x 100 Titration Scales: Accuracy of equipment = 0.001g, Weight measured = 10g Max possible error = 0.0015 Max % error = 0.0015/10 x 100 = 0.015 Volumetric flask: Since I used this twice for each trial I will multiply the result I obtain by two.

  2. Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

    If the hydrochloric acid is to be concentrated it will contain more hydrogen and chloride ions. As a result of this there will be much bond making and therefore more heat will be produced as a result of this. When heat is being produced it indicates a reaction is taken place.

  1. Determine the Enthalpy of Neutralisation for the following there Acids, H2SO4, HNO3 and H2SO4

    Apparatus * Polystyrene cup * Glass Rod * Thermometer * Measuring Cylinder * 1 moldm-3 of HNO3 * 0.5 moldm-3 of H2SO4 * 1 moldm-3 of HCl * 1 moldm-3 of NaOH * Stop clock * Pen Paper, graph paper * Ruler * Calculator Method The heat released during a neutralisation (when 1 mole of water is formed)

  2. Investigating Neutralisation.

    In the process, a salt is formed. I predict that as the concentration of the acid is doubled, the temperature rise is also doubled because there are double the number of H+ ions per unit volume, which can collide and react with the alkali.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work