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An Investigation Into The Neutralisation Of Acids

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Introduction

An Investigation Into The Neutralisation Of Acids Introduction Neutralisation is when you make a acidic or alkaline substance neutral by adding the other to it. Whatever the substance, when you neutralise it, a salt is always formed. I will be trying to find out the stronger out of a variety of Acids and place them into a rank order from strongest to weakest using neutralisation. Research Acids is the name given to substances that have a pH value lower than 7. As the pH gets lower, the more acidic the substance gets. Acids react with most metals to produce hydrogen and form a salt. The salt forms because the metal takes the place of the hydrogen in the acid e.g. Sodium Nitrate. Acids are caused by the amount of H+ (hydrogen) ions contained, the more H+ ions then the lower pH and the stronger the acid is. This is because there are more H+ ions to react. Different acids have different H+ concentrations so if you have two acids of the same concentration it does not mean they will be the same strength. ...read more.

Middle

--> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + Cl- --> Na+ + Cl- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) --> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Nitric Sodium Hydroxide + Nitric Acid --> Sodium Nitrate + Water NaOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq) --> Na NO3 (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + NO3- --> Na+ + NO3- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + HNO3 (aq) --> NaNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Ethanoic Sodium Hydroxide + Ethanoic Acid --> Sodium Ethanoate + Water NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) --> NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- +H+ + CH3COO- --> Na+ + CH3COO- + H20 OH- +H+ --> H20 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 NaOH (aq) + CH3COOH (aq) --> NaCH3COO (aq) + H2O (l) 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 15cm3 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m 0.015m Prediction I predict that my results will show the order of acids to be as follows (strongest to weakest): * Sulphuric Acid * Nitric Acid * ...read more.

Conclusion

This proves there must have been something wrong as heat is given off all until the point of neutralisation, as that is when all of the ions are used up in the reaction so no more heat is produced. Evaluation I believe that my experiment was conducted quite precisely but there are still quite a few things that could possibly vary the results, such as: * I could have put a lid on the beaker to stop any heat from escaping * I should have stirred the mixture between adding acid to allow all reactions to take place * I could have used smaller amounts of acid and/or a longer time span to get more precise results * As the readings on the Datameter kept changing up and down I had to choose one to write down so this may not be precise * I could have measured the acid/alkali more precisely by using better apparatus instead of plastic measuring tubes as these tend not to be too accurate and always have some left in the bottom after tipping into the beaker * All starting temperatures should have been the same * The polystyrene cup could have had some residue on it from previous experiments which would dramatically alter my results * * * * ...read more.

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