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An investigation to find out the energy produced to heat a certain amount of water.

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Introduction

An investigation to find out the energy produced to heat a certain amount of water By Christopher Stylianou Aim The aim is to find out the energy produced heating water by changing one independent variable (See below). Factors All the independent variables, which could affect the energy produced heating water are: * Different amount of fuel (alcohol) being burnt: By changing the amount of alcohol being burnt, it could change the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Different volume of water being heated: By changing the volume of water being heated, it could change the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Different rise in temperature: By changing the amount the temperature of the water is raised, it could change the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Different types of fuels (alcohols) being burnt: By using different types of alcohols, it could affect the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Amount of time heating the water: By allowing a certain amount of time per experiment, it could change the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Size of wick: By changing the size of the wick in the atmosphere, it could affect the amount of energy produced by heating water. * Different starting temperatures of the water being heated: By starting at different water temperatures, it could change the amount of energy produced by heating water. Investigation I have decided with the research I have below to change the different types of fuel being burnt and investigate how much energy each fuel produces to rise the temperature of the water a certain amount. This is because I can compare different fuels combustion and see which would produce the most energy. There are 5 fuels available to me to use in the investigation. Methanol, Ethanol, Propan-1-ol,Butan-1-ol and Pentan-1-ol. I have decided to raise the temperature 50�C and use water with a starting temperature around 20�C. ...read more.

Middle

* Watch out for glass objects, which might get broken. * The spirit burner is placed in a metal dish. Results Experiments: * = Anomalous Results. 1st Experiment Alcohol Starting Temperature �C Finishing Temperature�C Starting Weight (g) Finishing Weight (g) Mass Used (g) Methanol 20 70 170.68 167.02 3.66 Ethanol 21 71 173.36 170.79 2.57 Propan-1-ol 21 71 180.06 178.41 1.65 * Butan-1-ol 20 70 176.89 174.73 2.16 Pentan-1-ol 21 71 170.66 168.67 1.99 2nd Experiment Alcohol Starting Temperature �C Finishing Temperature �C Starting Weight (g) Finishing Weight (g) Mass Used (g) Methanol 19 69 167.02 163.28 3.74 Ethanol 20 70 170.79 168.30 2.49 Propan-1-ol 21 71 178.41 176.10 2.31 Butan-1-ol 21 71 174.73 172.54 2.19 Pentan-1-ol 22 72 168.67 166.64 2.03 3rd Experiment Alcohol Starting Temperature �C Finishing Temperature �C Starting Weight (g) Finishing Weight (g) Mass Used (g) Methanol - - - - - Ethanol - - - - - Propan-1-ol 20 70 176.10 173.75 2.35 Butan-1-ol - - - - - Pentan-1-ol - - - - - Alcohol 1st Results (g) 2nd Results (g) 3rd Results (g) Average Mass Used (g) Methanol 3.66 3.74 - 3.70 Ethanol 2.57 2.49 - 2.53 Propan-1-ol 1.65 * 2.31 2.35 2.33 Butan-1-ol 2.16 2.19 - 2.18 Pentan-1-ol 1.99 2.03 - 2.01 Glancing at these results, I can tell that less mass is being used to raise the temperature of the water by an alcohol with a bigger hydrocarbon structure. This must mean that a bigger hydrocarbon structure gives out more energy per gram of mass, as these results look reliable with only one anomalous result throughout the whole investigation. Efficiency: Methanol Step 1: g x Jg-1K-1 x K = J 100 x 4.18 x 50 = 20900 Joules Step 2: R.M.M. of CH3OH = 12 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 16 + 1 = 32g per mole. If 3.70g of methanol produce 20900 J of energy, then 32g of methanol produces: 20900 J � 3.70g = 5648.65 5648.65 x 32g = 180756.76 J ...read more.

Conclusion

and with this I have produced evidence to support my conclusion. We used 6 different alcohols to experiment with and repeated the results twice. We then noticed that there was an anomalous result so we repeated that experiment for the third time, so we could disregarder this result. This result might have occurred as another independent factor might have changed during the experiment. I.e.: - there might have been a bit more or less than 100g of water in the conical flask or we raised the temperature of the water just over or below 50�C for human error. None of the alcohols were changed in the experiment so they were the same concentration throughout the experiment. We also used the same measuring apparatus, so the accuracy stayed the same throughout the investigation. I don't believe that this anomalous result is part of a new trend either in this investigation but if I was to change a different independent variable that might not be the case. I believe our results were accurate enough for this investigation to provide reliable, usable results for my conclusion and analysis. All my results seem to follow the pattern shown on the graph and this has helped me to produce a good conclusion. However, as I said in the conclusion, there is a lot of energy being produced that is escaping from the experiment and is instead heating the air. To stop this from happening, if I was to carry out this investigation again, I could use calorimeter. This traps the heat energy so it has to heat up the water and not the surrounding air and it would make the results more accurate. By doing this as well I can expand my investigation and investigate bigger hydrocarbon structures like hexan-1-ol and see if there is any difference or something else to notice from the expanded results. I got my research from the Chemistry GCSE textbook, revision books, past preliminary work and class work notes in my exercise book. ...read more.

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