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Cell Structure and Function Relationship. Cellular structures, in many ways, help us understand how the processes involved in protein synthesis, chloroplasts, and mitochondria work successfully.

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Introduction

31/1/2009 Science Essay Cellular structures, in many ways, help us understand how the processes involved in protein synthesis, chloroplasts, and mitochondria work successfully. First of all, in protein synthesis, the DNA has to be small in order to be able to contain all the codes that need to be decoded by the ribosome in order to manufacture the protein. Also, certain compartments are needed in the ribosome in order to be able to create the long chain of amino acids that is protein that allows us to live. The fact that these compartments are located there can help us analyze them and further understand how a process such as protein synthesis can work correctly. Also the analysis of RNA, the nucleus, and the ribosome can further expand our scope of knowledge with regards to protein synthesis. In the chloroplasts, the thylakoids where photosynthesis occurs are connected by stromal lamellae, which act as the skeleton of the chloroplasts, and keep all the thylakoids at a safe distance from each other, which maximize the efficiency of the organelle. ...read more.

Middle

As for the basic properties of matter, they also help us understand how the process involved in protein synthesis, chloroplasts, and mitochondria work successfully. In protein synthesis, many chemical reactions occur which enable for the transformation from DNA to RNA, its decoding in the ribosome, and then its formation into protein, which is a long chain of amino acids. Many chemical reactions occur during this process, which help us understand how it is very successful. First of all, the RNA polymerase, an enzyme, splits the DNA from a double helix into one helix strand. Then, the RNA nucleotides bond with the DNA helix strand to form the mRNA, which connects to the tRNA and transported into the ribosome, where it is decoded and used to form long chains of amino acids called proteins. The precision of these chemical reactions is one way in which they work successfully. Since matter cannot be created or destroyed, this is a reason why protein synthesis has to be successful, as the exact amount of RNA that is decoded is the exact amount of amino acids that are formed. ...read more.

Conclusion

In aerobic metabolism, the successfulness of this process is evidently portrayed, as in anaerobic metabolism; only 4 molecules of ATP are produced. However, in aerobic metabolism, the pyruvate goes through the Kerb's cycle, which oxidizes it to create 36 molecules of ATP, which makes it much more efficient than anaerobic metabolism, and an efficient process overall. The fact that matter cannot be created or destroyed plays another critical role in this situation, as in anaerobic metabolism, the series of chemical reactions produces 4 ATP molecules for every one glucose molecule, and in aerobic metabolism, 36 ATP molecules are created for every one glucose molecule. This is another reason why it is so successful, because an exact number of ATP molecules and a known number will be produced in either process. Finally, the high concentration of the matrix inside the mitochondria enables for faster and more production of ATP, which makes it more successful. As you can see, there are many ways in which cellular structure and basic properties of matter help us understand how the process involved in protein synthesis, chloroplasts, and mitochondria work successfully. ...read more.

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