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chemistry rate of reaction

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Introduction

Chemistry Rate of Reaction Coursework Aim: To investigate how concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction, between limestone and hydrochloric acid. I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid and using concentrations of water to adjust the experiment. Thus making water the variable, then I am going to analyze the results to then conclude with whether concentration affects rate of reaction and how diversely it affect the reaction and what are the factors during such experiments. The rate of a reaction is the speed at which a reaction happens. If a reaction has a low rate, that means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high rate. Some reactions take hundreds, maybe even thousands of years while other can happen in less than one second. The rate of reaction depends on the type of molecules that are combining. Prediction: I predict that as the concentration of acid decreases the reaction will slow down and when there is no acid left the reaction will either not take place or it will occur so incredibly slowly. For many reactions involving liquids or gases, increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of reaction. In a few cases, increasing the concentration of one of the reactants may have little noticeable effect of the rate. ...read more.

Middle

This diagram illustrates how less acid molecules will mean fewer collisions between acid molecules and the marble chips. Temperature: When the temperature is raised of a reaction, the molecules move around much more (because they have more energy given in the form of heat). When they bounce around more, they are more likely to collide. The collision rate between molecules goes up. When the temperature is lowered, the molecules are slower (because they have less energy) and collide much less. This temperature drop decreases rate of reaction. Pressure: Pressure affects the rate of reaction, especially in the gas state of matter. When you increase the pressure, the molecules have less space for them to move around freely in. The larger concentration of molecules affectively increases the number of collisions. If you decrease the pressure, molecules don't hit each other as often. Lower pressure decreases the rate of reaction. Surface area: If one of the reactants is a solid, the surface area of the solid will affect how fast the reaction goes. This is because the two types of molecule can only bump into each other at the liquid solid interface, i.e. on the surface of the solid. So the larger the surface area of the solid, the faster the reaction will be. ...read more.

Conclusion

spillage * Hands washed - Hands were washed to free them of any chemicals after the experiments * Spillages were wiped clean Preliminaries: Time (secs) 25ml of acid 10ml of acid 0 ml of acid 30 6 3 No reaction 300 72 31 No reaction After Preliminary Evaluation: I have tested 2 fair extremes of the reaction with a high concentration of acid and a low one. Also I have used two different time scales; I conclude that I will use a large time scale and that the factor of concentration will increase by 5ml acid every attempt, with the attempts for every measurement for fair and accurate and reliable results. Evaluation: Although keep the temperature constant, kinetic theory is relevant. This is because the molecules in the reaction mixture have a range of energy levels. When collisions occur, they do not always result in a reaction. If the two colliding molecules have sufficient energy they will react. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of the reactants will increase the frequency of collisions between the two reactants. So this is the collision theory again. The collision theory says that the more collisions in a system, the more likely combinations of molecules will happen. If there are a higher number of collisions in a system, more combinations of molecules will occur. The reaction will go faster, and the rate of that reaction will be higher. ...read more.

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