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Chemistry revision notes - 4 methods of making salts.

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Introduction

4 Methods of Making Salt Method 1 : Acids + Metals 1. Many reactive metals form salts when reacted with acids 2. Displacement reaction ( X Neutralisation reaction) 3. When Metal and Acid react ? Salt and Hydrogen gas is formed 4. Only work for metals more reactive than hydrogen (But Aluminium doesn?t work because the impermeable layer aluminium oxide make it resistant to attack by acid) 5. Metals below hydrogen don?t react (e.g. copper, silver) & Metals at top of the reactivity series is never added to acid because they are too dangerous (e.g. sodium, potassium) Acid + Metal ? a Salt + Hydrogen E.G. ...read more.

Middle

Nitric acid always make nitrate, Sulfur acid always make sulfate, Hydrochloric acid always make chloride) - (e.g. Base contain Sodium ions always make sodium salt, base contain Potassium ions always make potassium salt) Bases Soluble Insoluble - Sodium, Potassium, Calcium Hydroxides & Calcium Oxides - Ammonia THEY ARE ALKALIS All other Oxides & Hydroxides (USE INSOLUBLE BASES IN THIS METHOD) Acid + Base ? a Salt + Water E.G. 6HCL(aq) + Fe2O3(s) ? 2FeCL3(aq) + 3H2O(l) Hydrochloric Acid + Solid Iron(III) Oxide ? Iron(III)Chloride Solution + Water Method 3 : Acid + Alkali (Soluble Base) ...read more.

Conclusion

Nitric Acid + Ammomia Solution ? Ammonium Nitrate + Water Method 4 : Precipitation to make Insoluble Salt 1. Insoluble salt can be made by reacting 2 solutions of soluble salts to produce a precipitate (insoluble solid) 2. Precipitation reaction 3. We need to know about the solubility of salt to decide whether a salt in soluble/insoluble Salts Soluble Insoluble All sodium, potassium, ammonium salts All other Carbonates Nitrates Most Chlorides, Bromides & Iodides Silver and Lead Chlorides, Bromides & Iodides Most Sufates Calcium & Barium Sulphate AZ(aq) + BY(aq) ? AY(s) + BX(aq) * AX, BY, BX are soluble(aq) & AY is insoluble(s) E.G. Pb(NO3)2(aq) +2KL(aq) ? Pbl2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Lead Nitrate Solution + Potassium Iodide Solution ? Lead Iodide Precipitate + Potassium Nitrate Solution ...read more.

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