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Cloning. Should it be banned? I will explain all the different types of cloning and I will be researching the scientists evidence behind each method and evaluating whether or not it is reliable

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

By Jonathan Stockdale Page 1 - Title page Page 2 - Contents Page 3 - Introduction into Cloning, and Asexual reproduction Page 4 - Asexual reproduction continued Page 5 - Asexual reproduction continued, and Religious views on cloning Page 6 - Religious views on cloning continued Throughout this investigation I am going to be looking at the arguments for and against cloning. I will explain all the different types of cloning and I will be researching the scientist's evidence behind each method and evaluating whether or not it is reliable. I will also be imputing my points of view on the points made, and this will put across the positive or negative aspects of cloning. What is a clone? Clones are genetically identical living organisms and can be produced commercially by taking cuttings. All the clones of 1 plant have the same genes and the same genetic history so therefore they have the same characteristics. There are many different types of cloning such as, asexual reproduction, commercial cloning of plants, animal cloning, and human reproduction. An insight into asexual reproduction. Plants can reproduce asexually. Asexual reproduction is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction. A more scientific definition is Agamogenesis which refers to reproduction without the fusion of gametes. 'Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the Achaea, bacteria, and protists.' - Information found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asexual_reproduction This is done when single celled organisms called Bacterium grow and then divided into two or even three cells. All the offspring produced asexually are clones I.E. they are genetically identical to the parent plant. Asexual reproduction is widely used in the commercial cloning of plants. Typical method of asexual reproduction above ? A egg cell from the female is removed from the body and the nucleus is removed, a cell from another male or female is removed from the body, the nucleus is removed and inserted into the empty cell from ...read more.

Middle

Below are some of the main religions views: Christianity - "Roman Catholicism and other Christian denominations believe that the soul enters the body at the moment of conception when the sperm and egg unite. They feel harvesting cells for embryonic cloning is tantamount to live human experimentation and contrary to God's will. Further, they maintain producing cloned zygotes that are unlikely to survive is tantamount to murder. Some Christian conservatives express concern that cloned embryos would have no soul, since it was, in their view, born outside of God's parameters." This is one view however nothing against cloning is mentioned in the bible. - found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_views_on_cloning Judaism - Judaism does not equate life with conception and, though some question the wisdom of cloning, Orthodox rabbis generally find no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to object to cloning. Liberal Jewish thinkers have cautioned against cloning, among other genetic engineering efforts, though some eye the potential medical advantages. - found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_cloning Buddhism - Ronald Y. Nakasone, a Buddhist priest and Professor of Buddhist Art and Culture at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California stated, "The Buddhist response to the possibility of cloning human beings is not if, but when . . . Would we accord a cloned person the benefits enjoyed by those who are born naturally? I would hope so." - found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_cloning Hinduism - The editors of Hinduism Today, in a compilation of Hindu thought on the issue of cloning, suggested a morally neutral stance, indicating that Hinduism neither "condones not condemns" cloning research. "If done with divine intent and consciousness, it may benefit; if done in the services of selfishness, greed and power, it may bring severe negative karmic experiences." But research may pose difficulties: Hindus are not allowed to injure sentient beings, so the tradition rejects both animal research and the destruction of embryos. - found at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3371684/ Islam - Preservation of parent-child lineage is of utmost importance to Muslims, who object to third-party assisted reproduction but endorse procedures that assist in the fertility of committed parents. ...read more.

Conclusion

This type of cloning is very different to human reproductive cloning because a new organ is created as appose to an entire human, these organs that have been created are then used to help improves the quality of life to people whose organs are failing and need transplanting. An added benefit is that the waiting list for transplant will go down because rather than taking organs from a dead person (where the organ is not genetically identical to that of the patient receiving it) a new genetically identical organ can be grown and there is also less of a risk of the organ being rejected by the patients body. I feel that a bit more testing and experimenting needs to be done for human therapeutic cloning, however not as much as with human reproductive cloning. Now for my final verdict my title question 'should human cloning be banned in the UK', my answer is split into two, one for human reproductive cloning and another for human therapeutic cloning... Experimenting into human reproductive cloning should be legal in the UK, however only once sufficient testing has been done to show that it safe for the mother (to give birth to the clone- which are usually larger than other babies once first born) and to the clone themselves (to make sure that no deformities are made) then it should be legal to fully clone humans in the UK. Experimenting into human therapeutic cloning is very much still being done and therefore should be legal in the UK, I still feel that we are not at a stage were either type of clone should be made however I still feel that it should be legal, even though it could take 50 years before a clone is made. Finally therapeutic cloning is such a benefit to patients that could be dieing today that I feel It should be legalised and the government should help finance the experimenting to help make this form of cloning a reality very soon. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 | Page ...read more.

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A lot a research has been done for this essay but too much of it is just 'cut-and-pasted' in. Its is not clear that the student really understands and can use the ideas to build an argument - in some places it is clear that the student does not fully understand some of the key ideas or vocabulary

Marked by teacher Jacqui Punter 21/02/2012

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