Benefits and implications of improving plant productivity.
Biology Coursework Skill I+J Benefits and implications of improving plant productivity Tamryn Renwick To increase plant productivity we can manipulate the environment, or more importantly we can improve the plants. There are many different ways that plant productivity can be improved, for example one option is to keep them in ideal, controlled environments such as glass houses and poly-tunnels. In these conditions, light intensity, temperature, CO2 concentration, moisture, etc are adjusted to suit a particular crop (2). But one major problem with this method of crop production is that costs are very high and there is not always a big enough profit. Another process that can be used to increase plant productivity is breeding programmes based on hybridisation. This process has many disadvantages though, such as, there is the transfer of few desirable genes also accompanied by the uncontrollable transfer of an additional 1000- 10 000 genes (1), the process takes 10-15 years to complete (1), and so has not been widely used. The most widely thought of way to improve plant productivity is genetic manipulation. Genetic manipulation (GM) was developed in the late 1970s (1) but has only been exploited to full in the last decade. It is a new and most important approach in increasing agricultural productivity, and is one of the fastest growing industries. Examples of genetically
Attack of the Clones - Is it right or wrong?
Attack of the Clones Is it right or wrong? Cloning is the creation of a human being, or a number of human beings, who are genetically identical to another. There are two types of cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning is when cloning techniques are used to start the growth of embryos in order to create new organs or cells for medical purposes. The Government already allows scientists to carry out a certain amount of therapeutic cloning as it can help different patients in many ways. Through therapeutic cloning, livers would be able to be cloned for liver transplants, kidneys could be cloned for kidney transplants, bone marrow would be able to be cloned for adults and children who suffer from leukaemia and scientists are confident that they will be able to grow nerves or the spinal cord back again when people are injured. This would mean that quadriplegics such as the actor, Christopher Reeves would be able to get up and walk again. Reproductive cloning is the creation of a new person with the same genetic make-up as someone who is alive or has lived. Reproductive cloning would help people with some genetic diseases such as some heart conditions to have children of their own genetic offspring without taking the risk of passing on the disease to their children. This means that eventually, some diseases would be eradicated. Reproductive
Agricultural Issues: Genetic Modification.
Agricultural Issues: Genetic Modification Scientists are developing ways to make new genetically modified (GM) food that could transform the way we feed ourselves. GM crops may enable more food to be produced from less land using less water and fewer chemicals. However, some people question whether this "gene revolution" will really reduce hunger in the world. Others worry that it is being pushed too quickly without enough consideration of its long term impact. Throughout the world there are drastic inequalities in food supply with the emergence of areas of surplus and famine. The cause of such inequalities vary from physical to human and political. Most of the responses to these problems have been driven by high income, high technology MEDC's or trans-national companies. The impacts of the Green Revolution, intensification of farming and the development of genetically-modified foods have varied. Some are economic while others have been social or environmental: some have brought benefits, while others have created problems and some may be focused upon the environment e.g., organic farming. Throughout the world genetic modification has been used freely for more that a decade as a research tool for medical purposes and in food ingredients. It holds exiting promise, not only for conquering disease, eliminating pests and contributing to the knowledge economy but for enhancing
The impact of Genetically Modified Foods
The impact of Genetically Modified Foods Since the introduction of Genetically Modified crops into Supermarket chains in the UK in 1987 of GM potatoes, there have been various reports into whether they harm us, immediately or in the future. The first major concerns about the harmful effects of GM crops were highlighted in 1999 about possible toxic effects of GM potatoes on laboratory rats. This small study printed in The Lancet, conducted by Arpad Pusztai1, caused major uproar all over the world and serious financial, ethical, social and environmental issues were starting to emerge. Whether proving to be true or false, the rumors still cause major problems for companies producing and selling the products, and serious thoughts into the future use of GM technology are still being discussed. GM technology was first introduced to improve the resistance of certain varieties of crops to common diseases they encounter, to enable the growing of the crop in unnatural environments, such as cold climates and resistance to the use of strong weed killers, and to improve a crop so that it produces a higher yield with a higher quality than the natural crop. The major producers of GM crops have been USA, Argentina, Canada and Brazil with a lot of developing countries increasing in the use of GM crops. However, Europe has yet to use the products commercially in large amounts with Spain and
Food Production: 'What are the possible environmental risks of growing GM crops? Is it morally permissible to proceed with a harmful course of action if you are unsure of the consequences?
. Food Production: 'What are the possible environmental risks of growing GM crops? Is it morally permissible to proceed with a harmful course of action if you are unsure of the consequences? In the last century scientists devised methods of modifying the genotype of food crops. This process introduces foreign genes from a donor organism into a host organism . The technique generally used is recombinant DNA1. For example, GM soya has been modified to make it tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate so that farmers can use glyphosate to control weeds without killing the crop2. Supporters of GM foods believe key food crops will be genetically engineered to offer improved nutrition, repel pests, and prosper in hostile environments - a world in which food is plentiful and hunger scarce. There are others, however, who do not share this optimism. They argue we do not know enough about the science and that altering genes could lead to unforeseen problems for future generations. Their concern is that genetically engineered crops pose substantial risks to human health, the environment, and rural economies. Indeed, there are numerous hazards GM crops pose to the environment, many of which have potential to cause grave damage. One of the biggest fears is the possibility
Genetically Modified Foods Report
Genetically modified foods report Genetically modified foods are food that have been changed or reproduced in a different way by removing or adding a gene to make it different. You can change the plants genes to make it better in a lot of different ways like you can make a plant drought tolerant but adding or taking away the gene for that. This gene swapping process is normally done in a laboratory and it has to always be done right of the gene will be wrong and stuff up. These plants have been changed to desired trait such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. The traditional way of genetically modifying the plant is to out breed the genes in the plant but this is very time consuming and can be inaccurate most of the time. But on the other hand genetically engineering the plant is much more efficient and less time consuming. Genetically engineering a plant is where the manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or eliminating specific genes through modern molecular biology techniques. Genetically modified foods are useful to humanity because they are making food easier to grow and keep longer. They are making our lives easier because if the plants can grow in drought areas that means they can grow them without much water and more for us. Also that means there is more housing in the more tropical areas. Another reason why
Should Cloning Human Beings Be Legallised In the United Kingdom?
SHOULD CLONING HUMAN BEINGS BE LEGALLISED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM? To give people the power to create carbon copies or identical twins of themselves has long been a science fiction nightmare. Today technology enables us to copy all the genetic code of a cell and to even transplant the nucleus, which holds the individuals entire genetic information, into another. This "cloning" process, though intellectually fascinating, is at present illegal in the United Kingdom and has long been a controversial topic. Despite the benefits I, like many, see cloning as a gross infringement of human rights, a manipulation of the human race and an attempt to equalise man with God. In this essay I will explore the implications and attractions cloning has on society and the medical world, in an attempt to answer the question: should cloning human beings be legalised in the United Kingdom? While the cloning of human beings is specifically outlawed in the United Kingdom under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act in 1990, many other countries worldwide are already putting the process into action. In the United States the medical profession has benefited significantly from the uses of cloning, from mutations to manipulations. Scientists have discovered that the manipulation of genes used in this process can be used to conquer various genetic diseases and defects for generations to come. It is
General Motors Social Responsibility Strategy.
Management BUSbm2000 Assignment By Adam Tilston Reg No 00302568 General Motors Social Responsibility Strategy My chosen company is the General Motors Corporation. It goes without saying that they are one of the leading businesses in the world and could be the largest car manufacturer. Their models include such lines as the Opel, Chevrolet, Chryslers and other household names. Due to General Motors being a large company, they have many Social Responsibilities. This is because they are at the forefront of motorcar manufacturing and need to set examples to the vast customers they have. Here is a list of the some of the issues that are put into their strategy: - * Advocate product and policy positions that help improve motor vehicle safety. * Increase child restraint and safety belt use. * Reduce crashes involving younger drivers * Reduce incidence of drunk and impaired driving. These were found on the GM website and are included in their public policy. As you can see from these points, the business is showing that they are extremely willing and show concerns over the various problems associated with automobiles. It shows that the business has the potential to do good for the community. As the car industry gets more and more technical, and more people would sooner buy a safe car rather than a nice looking one, their actions will have an impact on social problems, If
Discuss the likely advantages and problems arising from the introduction of genetically modified agricultural crops
Charlotte Seaman. (General essay style). Discuss the likely advantages and problems arising from the introduction of genetically modified agricultural crops. Genetically Modified food (GM) is most commonly used to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption, using the latest molecular biology techniques. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. Genetic engineering can create plants with the extract desired trait, both accurately and rapidly. For example frost can destroy sensitive seedlings, an antifreeze gene from cold water fish has been introduced to plants such as tobacco and potatoes, and with this anti freeze gene these plants are able to tolerate the cold temperatures that would normally kill unmodified seedlings. Crop losses from insect pests can be staggering resulting in devastating financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Farmers typically use chemical pesticides annually. Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of potential health hazards. Growing GM food such as Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) corn could eliminate the application of chemical pesticides. B.t is a naturally occurring bacterium that produces crystal proteins that are lethal to insect larva; B.t crystal protein
Cloning. Should it be banned? I will explain all the different types of cloning and I will be researching the scientists evidence behind each method and evaluating whether or not it is reliable
By Jonathan Stockdale Page 1 - Title page Page 2 - Contents Page 3 - Introduction into Cloning, and Asexual reproduction Page 4 - Asexual reproduction continued Page 5 - Asexual reproduction continued, and Religious views on cloning Page 6 - Religious views on cloning continued Throughout this investigation I am going to be looking at the arguments for and against cloning. I will explain all the different types of cloning and I will be researching the scientist's evidence behind each method and evaluating whether or not it is reliable. I will also be imputing my points of view on the points made, and this will put across the positive or negative aspects of cloning. What is a clone? Clones are genetically identical living organisms and can be produced commercially by taking cuttings. All the clones of 1 plant have the same genes and the same genetic history so therefore they have the same characteristics. There are many different types of cloning such as, asexual reproduction, commercial cloning of plants, animal cloning, and human reproduction. An insight into asexual reproduction. Plants can reproduce asexually. Asexual reproduction is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, or fertilization. Only one parent is involved in asexual reproduction. A more scientific definition is Agamogenesis which refers to reproduction without the fusion of gametes. 'Asexual