• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Developing Fuels

Extracts from this document...


Developing Fuels Petrol is made up of alkanes, which are a type of hydrocarbon. These alkanes have carbon atoms connected four times to other carbon or hydrogen atoms by singular covalent bonds, and are therefore saturated. Alkanes have different structures. Some have a chain of carbons with hydrogens connected to them. They are called chain alkanes. Others have carbons interconnecting and are called branched alkanes. Petrol has short-chained alkanes and branched alkanes as these have high octane numbers. This means that, when the alkanes are put under pressure they explode smoothly and don't cause the engine to knock. If an alkane had an octane no. of 90 then it knocks the same amount as a mixture of 90% methylcyclohexane (knocks very little) and 10% n-heptane (knocks a lot). Petrol originally had mainly long chained alkanes. Therefore , as some alkanes have the same formula but different structures, they can be changed into other alkanes during isomerisation. ...read more.


The pollutants, which are released after petrol is burnt, are Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Sulphur oxide, Nitrogen monoxide and other various hydrocarbons. These are formed from the waste products of the petrol and the air that helped cause the petrol to explode. The reactions that take place in the engine are shown below : Ordinarily, nitrogen won't react with oxygen. However, inside the combustion engine, temperature can rise up to 1,200 C. These exhaust emissions are very harmful to the environment and can cause both acid rain and also photochemical smog. This is created when two of the pollutants from the car engine, nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons, mix with oxygen, water vapour and sunlight. The final product is called ozone. This ozone is part of the smog. The smog causes haziness, poor visibility, eye and nose irritation and breathing difficulties for asthmatics, the young and the old. To stop these pollutants adding to this smog, laws were drawn up to reduce emissions. ...read more.


and this fact coupled with the possibility of a end to the supply of oil have left people looking for alternatives to the combustion engine to run cars. One suggestion has been to use methanol instead of other engines as it produces fewer pollutants than other hydrocarbons, it has a high octane rating so a smooth burn would be available and it's cheap to change the engine and petrol pump and also to produce. However, when mixed with ordinary petrol, it won't mix without a solvent to help. Also, the mixture absorbs moisture and then corrodes the engine. The other option is to use hydrogen. The hydrogen could be used by creating protons and electrons. The protons would move to one side of a partially permeable membrane creating a potential difference across this membrane. Oxygen could then be used to link the protons and neutrons via electrolysis. This process would cause a flow of electrons, which could power the engine. The by-product is water, which is clean. Either way, the future looks cleaner for the engine. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Viscosity of Alkanes

    3 star(s)

    height of 2cm with each alkane in a cooling water bath to keep it below room temperature (less chance of evaporation) and to place 2 drops of alkane on the slide for each repition so that there is less chance of all the alkane evaporating.

  2. Energy Transfer in Fuels

    it had already reached a 20 degrees rise when it still had 3 degrees to go. Reading the thermometer was the hardest observation to make, as sometimes it is hard to see the mercury, which represents the temperature. So when one person read the thermometer, there would be a second

  1. This is a mini-project on fuel - topics include petrol and fossil fuels.

    It was formed from the remains of prehistoric plants that lived on land and in the sea. New gas deposits are still being created. 1. In the sea tiny plants sink, and a layer of dead plants build up on the seabed. The sea plants are buried in the mud.

  2. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    I must wear safety goggles so that I do not get anything in my eyes. I must also use tongs to remove the boiling tube from the clamp after it has been heated. Method: Diagram: Method: * Set up a heatproof mat, clamp stand, and 2 clamps and measure out 25cm3 of H2O in a boiling tube.

  1. Fuel cell technology.

    The acid molecules are fixed to the polymer and cannot "leak" out, but the protons on these acid groups are free to migrate through the membrane. With the solid polymer electrolyte, electrolyte loss is not an issue with regard to stack life.

  2. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    and energy per unit mass (kilogram). Fuel Formula Relative molecular mass Energy released per mole (KJ mol-1 Energy released per kilogram (KJ Kg-1) Carbon C(s) 12 -393 -32750 Methane CH4(g) 16 -890 -55625 Octane C8H18(l) 114 -5512 -48350 Methanol CH3OH(l)

  1. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    oxide ? magnesium oxide + copper Mg(s) + CuO(s) ? MgO(s) + Cu(s) The magnesium and the copper are both metals and are made up of metal atoms but the copper (II) oxide and the magnesium oxide are both ionic compounds.

  2. Notes on crude oil and its by-products.

    temperature of about 450°C Temperature is a compromise as it cannot be too high because it would favour the backward reaction. It cannot be too low because rate of reaction would be too low to be economically viable. ii a pressure of about 200 atmospheres 200 atmospheres is a compromise pressure chosen on economic grounds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work