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Diabetes Type 1 and 2

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Diabetes Introduction Over than 2 million people in the UK have the condition, and shockingly up to 750,000 more are believed to have it without realising they do. I am going to write about the two main types of diabetes: Type I and Type II. I will research the main causes of these types, the symptoms, how diabetes is tested for, how it's treated and how genetic engineering is used in the treatment of diabetes. I will also explain about what people think about the treatment of diabetes, showing the ethics of this. I will also put in about the two practical's we did where we had to test how much diabetes was in the urine. I will show the data and graphs from this experiment. Diabetes is caused by the lack of the hormone insulin. This can result in high levels of glucose in the blood which can lead to coma and death, it cannot be cured but it can be controlled by a sensible diet and daily injections of insulin. Theory In this part I will write about Benefits and risks of science, where insulin comes from, where we get it from now, the risks of the rejection from injecting insulin, the benefits and ethical issues to do with this. After we eat, all the different foods are broken down into sugars in the gut. The main sugar is called glucose. This is absorbed through the gut wall into the bloodstream. Glucose is used by the cells in the body to generate energy. To remain healthy, the blood glucose level should not go too high or too low. So, when the blood glucose begins to rise after we eat, the level of a hormone called insulin should also rise. Insulin makes the cells in the body take glucose into the cells from the bloodstream. Some of the glucose is used by the cells for energy, and some is converted into glycogen or fat which stores energy. ...read more.

Middle

These very slight differences do not affect the way in which the insulin works inside the human body. Pig insulin is structurally closer to human insulin than is cow insulin. These days, animal insulins are made from highly purified pancreas extracts and are marketed as 'natural' insulins. The risks of injecting pig or cow insulin is the rejection or allergic reactions. There are some people that are affected in a specific area, such as rashes at the injection site, so they are trying to get rid o the harmful bacteria to help lower the affect of rejection insulins by doing this it will reduce some allergic reactions to about 2-3% of people treated with pork or cow insulin. There are also some people that are affected around the whole body but these reactions are classed as very rare and can occur at the start of insulin treatment or many years after. In these sorts of cases the allergy is usually due to the insulin molecule itself rather than additives. Using cow and pig insulin can also bring many ethical issues to do with many religions and vegetarians. In Hinduism the cow is known as sacred and they worship it, the cow is so very important in the religion that it is illegal to kill cows in most of India. So this may create problems for anyone with diabetes in India that needs animal insulin though there is the alternative of pig insulin. Eating pork in Islam is also forbidden as they believe it is a filthy animal, and although they do not eat it and think of it in a bad way they cannot harm it s they believe that god created all animals for a purpose. So they can't inject insulin because they know that the animal has been slaughtered for the purpose of insulin, so they know it has been harmed. Vegetarians and Buddhists are also against this as they believe that a plant-based vegetarian diet is healthier and can prevent diseases. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the samples in the second experiment if the urine had glucose in they went either yellow orange or red, depending on the concentration of glucose. In conclusion I think that diabetes is becoming a big problem, especially as obesity is the leading cause of it and although type 1 diabetes is more common with children, the number of kids with type 2 diabetes is increasing every year because of obesity. Obesity is when a person is 15kg or more over weight. So I think that people and kids being healthier could reduce the type 2 diabetes rapidly. In a BBC article it said that 45% of type 2 newly diabetes incidents is in children this is probably because more children are sat in front of the TV or on computer games eating junk food rather than being outside getting exercise. As I said before about vegetarians I think they had a point as them not eating meat (most of the junk food is meat example, burgers, fried chicken ext) this makes them healthy and reduces possibility of getting diabetes, so what I'm saying is not that everyone turns into vegetarians but they think more about what they eat. I also think that there will always be a problem of where insulin comes from, as when it comes from pigs or cows there religions and vegetarians that always have a say about how its cruelty or something to do with that. Also when the insulin is genetically engineered people say that it is unnatural and how that it has lowered the purpose of animals and humans, I think that this debate will continue for a long time and there will never be an end to it as people will always have different opinions. I think that all these things should be taken into account as we should respect what people think I also think that to all children who are obese for them to be at more of a healthier weight so there is less chance for them to get diabetes. ...read more.

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