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Each region of the EM spectrum has different uses in everyday life. radio waves These are used for transmitting radio signals, phone signals and television

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Introduction

Task four The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of radiant energies or wave frequencies. There are seven main regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. These are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays. Each section of the EM spectrum has a different wavelength, these are shown in the table below Section of EM spectrum Wavelength (in cm) radio waves > 10 microwaves 10 --> 10 infrared 10 --> 10 Visible light 10 -->10 ultraviolet 10 --> 10 x-rays 10 --> 10 Gamma rays < 10 Each region of the EM spectrum has different uses in everyday life. radio waves These are used for transmitting radio signals, phone signals and television. Also stars and gases in space emit radio waves. Microwaves These are used for cooking, in our microwaves. They can also be used for communication. Infrared This is used for heating, night vision and in remote controls. Visible light This is the light that we see. It is emitted by everything. Ultraviolet Is emitted from the sun, it is what tans our skin. It is also used for sterilising, and in forensic science, to see things such as traces of bodily fluids, which are invisible to the naked eye. ...read more.

Middle

Different pieces of equipment will use different amounts of energy. For example, a light bulb consumes 75 watts of power, a desk top computer and 15'' monitor consumes 150 watts, a water heater consumes 3800 watts and a power station consumes 500 megawatts of power. Energy inputs, outputs and efficiencies A coal fired power station burns coal at a rate of 75kg of coal per second. Each kg of coal releases 27 million joules of energy Total input for power station: Power= work done/ time Power= 75x27 Power= 2025 mj/s So the power station produces 2025 million joules of energy per second. Output= 800 mw Efficiency= 800/ 2025 x 100 = 39.5% A water bath in a lab has a power rating of 2.5 kW. It was used to heat tap water at 17(c to a temperature of 37(c for a biology experiment on enzymes. It took 22mins and 45 secs before the water reached the right temperature. The bath contained 30 litres of water The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 J kg-1K-1 Total energy used by heating element during the heating period. Power= 2.5 kW Time= 22 mins and 45 secs= 1365 seconds Total energy used (energy output) ...read more.

Conclusion

The filling solution in the reference electrode has oH- ions in it. This generates a millivoltage which is passed on in the same way as in the sensing electrode. The millivoltages are then passed on into the electronic part of the pH meter. The pH meter then takes the inputs from the sensing electrode and the referencing electrode and compares the two values to get a result millivolt reading. The reading in mV is then converted into a pH reading. In modern pH meters both the sensing electrode and the referencing electrode are contained in one glass tube, with the special glass of the sensing electrode protruding from the bottom. The light microscope The purpose of the light microscope is to magnify images. Many factors would have had to be considered when designing this equipment. For example, where the object/specimen would be placed, how the image would be magnified, how we would be able to see the image. These factors are solved by the stage, lenses , eyepiece and built in light sources. Other factors would include, where the microscope would be used, for example, in a teaching lab. This is taken into account by the size of the microscope. It is small enough to sit on the bench of a teaching lab, and relatively inexpensive compared to other microscopes, therefore teaching institutions can afford to purchase more than one for their students. ...read more.

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