#### "Making an Electromagnet"

Project in Physics Technical Paper "Making an Electromagnet" Submitted by: Group 10 Audrey Mae Selda Ednard La Rosa Easter Cindy Mutia Ken Bjanli Te Year 4- Diamond Submitted to: Ms. Shella Mae Cascaro Physics Teacher Date of Submission: December 14, 2005 Wednesday A. Statement of the Problem/ Objectives: The following are some objectives or what the proponents would like to carry out in the progress of this project: To be able to make an electromagnet in the simplest way. To be able to relate the number of turns of wire with the strength of the electromagnet To be able to attract as many paper clips as possible. To be able to explain and recognize the principles and concepts behind electromagnetism. B. Materials and Methods: I. Materials: These are some of the materials used by the proponents in making the electromagnet: One iron nail Stranded copper wire One or more D-cell batteries Scissors Paper clips II. Methods: These are what the proponents did in making the electromagnet: The proponents first gathered all the materials needed for the making of the electromagnet. The next thing that the proponents did was to remove some insulation. So a pair of scissor or a cutter was used in order to remove the insulating rubber starting from each end of the wire to expose the copper wire. The wire was wrapped around the nail in a spiral manner.

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• Word count: 1186
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### The topic of which I have been studying is energy transfers, how energy can not be destroyed but only changed into another such as potential into kinetic, this the energy transfer which shall take place in my investigation.

Science Course Work Introduction The topic of which I have been studying is energy transfers, how energy can not be destroyed but only changed into another such as potential into kinetic, this the energy transfer which shall take place in my investigation. The aim of this investigation it to find out how the height of the ramp affects the speed the ball travels. Plan I am going to investigate how the height of a ramp affects the speed of which a ball travels. To make sure my test is correct I will need to keep several things the same these are: The distance the ball has to role, to get the speed. The length of the ramp. The ball, so that is the same mass and the surface so that the texture of it will be the same. The thing I will be changing is the height of the ramp. To do this I will use a ramp, a bouncy ball, a meter ruler, a stop watch and a clamp. All these will be provide by school. I will start by raising the ramp at 0.20 meters intervals using the clamp, starting at 0.20 meters and finishing at 1 meter. First I will mark a meter on the bench from where I will hold the ramp. After I have measured the 0.20 meters height I will roll the bouncy ball down the ramp and time it once it has reach the foot of the ramp and stop the stopwatch once the ball has reached the meter mark. I will do this three times so that my results are accurate and then find my

• Word count: 1813
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### I chose to do my sensors project about sliding potentiometers because they are very common in every day life, and I thought it may be interesting to discover how they work.

Physics coursework Introduction I chose to do my sensors project about sliding potentiometers because they are very common in every day life, and I thought it may be interesting to discover how they work. There are potentiometers on lots of everyday household appliances, sliding and rotary potentiometer on hi-fis to change the volume or tuning, washing machines and dishwashers to change settings and other electrical equipment and machine. As the world becomes more computer reliant sensors will be used more often, especially potentiometers as they are easy to operate. Rotary and sliding potentiometers both work in a similar fashion. As the slider gets moved along, the voltage increases as the potential difference changes. A rotary potentiometer works the same way, but is twisted round, so rather than measuring displacement, degrees are considered. I will take this simple idea and look into true values and patterns. Plan Fig 1. Circuit diagram of the circuit to be built.(Not to scale) I am going to build the diagram as shown above and slide the potentiometer along and see what the different readings of the voltmeter are. The equipment I shall be using is: * Wires x 4 * A 59mm sliding potentiometer (5kB) * A digital voltmeter, Rapid 212 DMM. Reading error: 0.005V * 30cm Ruler. Accuracy: 0.5mm * Stopwatch, Unilab Accuracy: 0.005 secs * Power Pack (1kWIN L.V power

• Word count: 1616
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating how the length of a piece of wire affects resistance in a circuit.

Stephanie Wickers 1st July, 2003 Investigating how the length of a piece of wire affects resistance in a circuit Aim Resistance is measurement which describes how difficult or how easy it is for an electron to flow through a conductor in a circuit. Resistance is measured in Ohms. In this investigation I am going to be trying to find out and do further research into why resistance is affected by the length of a piece of wire. Research There are many factors effecting resistance in a circuit and the four main ones are Length, Temperature, Material, and Thickness. I have done research to find out how and why these factors affect resistance. If the length of the wire is increased then the resistance will also increase proportionally. This happens because the electron has further to travel in the circuit and therefore there is more chance of a collision between an atom and an electron. If the thickness of the wire increases then the resistance will decrease and if the thickness decreases the resistance will increase. This is because the increase in area will enable the electrons to move around more freely. This in turn will reduce the number of collisions between atoms and electrons and will lower the resistance as the flow of electrons is not interrupted as much by the atoms in the wire. If the wire is heated the atoms in the wire will vibrate due to the increase

• Word count: 3200
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### "Are rechargeable batteries more economical than alkaline batteries?"

IB Extended Essay 07-05-2003 Candidate Name: Willy Gunawan Candidate Number: D0612-027 School: Wesley College, Melbourne School Number: 0612 Subject: Chemistry "Are rechargeable batteries more economical than alkaline batteries?" Words: 3711 Acknowledgements: 07/04/2003 I acknowledge that the work of others has been appropriately referenced and that all unacknowledged work is genuinely mine. Along with this I want to thanks all the support given by my family, and Ms. Karen Hamilton which has been very patient in guiding me and was a tremendous mental support and me during this hectic time of doing the assignment itself. Thank you, for making it possible for me to finish the project. As English is my second language, a lot of effort and time has been put into ensuring that my language is properly used, and make sense. Yet it is inevitable that I made linguistic mistakes along the way. I would like to use this opportunity, to apologise if that is the case. Willy Gunawan Contents: Title Page..............................................................................................1 Acknowledgements..................................................................................2 Table of Contents....................................................................................3 .

• Word count: 4752
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### To investigate the relationship between Angular Acceleration and Torque.

Circular Motion Practical - UB Physics Assessment 1 Aim: To investigate the relationship between Angular Acceleration and Torque. Hypothesis: Angular Acceleration will be proportional to torque ( ??????) according to the equation ????I? Independent Variable: ????Torque : Torque was changed by varying both F and r in the formula ????Fr . Force is varied by changing the hanging mass and therefore the force due to gravity. The radius (r) is varied by using different drive radii (shown in the method diagram), ie. applying the force due to gravity to the different sized rims underneath the cylinder being accelerated. Dependant Variable: ????Angular Acceleration : A cylinder on a low friction axle is accelerated by the independent variable - torque. The measurements taken are the velocity at the rim and the diameter of the cylinder (to find r). Variables to be controlled: -Radius of velocity measurement. The radius from the centre of rotation to the rim which the ticker tape was attached to was a constant 0.124m. Velocity measurements derived from the ticker tape therefore exist at this radius, so it is used to calculate angular velocity ?=v/r. -Radius of torque application. The radius from the centre of rotation to the rim which the force was applied to was varied between three values, 0.0153m, 0.0252m, and 0.0352m. These values are used calculate torque ?=Fr

• Word count: 2013
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### How did the Dinosaurs become Extinct?

The Asteroid Theory One of the most well-known and intriguing theories suggested for dinosaur extinction is the asteroid theory. In the 1980, the father-son team of Luis and Walter Alvarez discovered a layer of iridium in the K-T boundary. Iridium is rare on earth, but abundant in meteorites. The Alvarezs' suggested that a huge asteroid or comet, perhaps miles in diameter, hit the Earth at that time. The result of such an impact would be an enormous explosion that would throw dust clouds into the sky, darkening the planet. Massive forest fires, triggered by the hit, would add smoke to the sky. This would cool the planet causing the climatic changes observed. A crater, now worn down and partly under the ocean, was found along the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula and its creation coincides nicely with the K-T boundary. NASA scientists estimate that the asteroid that made Chicxulub Crater, as it is now known, would have been about 6 to 12 miles in diameter. The crater is about 130 miles across. Scientists at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, have even been able to trace the path of that asteroid back into space. According to their calculations, 160 million years ago a collision between a 100-mile-wide asteroid, named Baptistina, and a smaller unnamed asteroid out beyond the orbit of Mars, shattered the larger object and sent pieces of it into the inner solar

• Word count: 1447
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### length of a simple pendulum affects the time

. Plan Aim To investigate how the length of a simple pendulum affects the time for a complete swing. Variables length The length of the pendulum has a large effect on the time for a complete swing. As the pendulum gets longer the time increases. size of swing Surprisingly, the size of the swing does not have much effect on the time per swing. mass The mass of the pendulum also does not affect the time. air resistance With a small pendulum bob there is very little air resistance. This can easily be seen because it takes a long time for the pendulum to stop swinging, so only a small amount of energy is lost on each swing. A large and light pendulum bob would be affected by a significant amount of air resistance. This might change the way the pendulum moves. gravity The pendulum is moved by the force of gravity pulling on it. On the Moon, where the pull of gravity is less, I would expect the time for each swing to be longer. Theory When the pendulum is at the top of its swing it is momentarily stationary. It has zero kinetic energy and maximum gravitational potential energy. As the pendulum falls the potential energy is transferred to kinetic energy. The speed increases as the pendulum falls and reaches a maximum at the bottom of the swing. Here the speed and kinetic energy are a maximum, and the potential energy is a minimum. As the pendulum rises the

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• Word count: 2341
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### John Jevons - 11HD

John Jevons - 11HD GCSE Science Coursework: Physics Investigation Aim: To investigate if the length of a wire determines the resistance of a wire by using different lengths of nichrome wire. Planning: A Current is measured in amps (A). It is a measure of the charge that flows per second. It uses the formula Current = charge / time. Charge in itself represents the number of electrons flowing through the wire per second. It is measured with an ammeter. Resistance is where a metal wire is connected to an electric circuit, and the voltage from the battery sends electrons through the wire. The electrons that collide with the metal ions of the wire and slow down. Resistance is measured by how freely the electrons move within a metal wire, high resistance meaning that the electrons have difficulty moving, while a low resistance, meaning the opposite, that they move freely and aren't slowed. The four following factors affect resistance:- Thickness of the wire - The thicker the wire, the more space the electrons have to move, therefore reducing resistance. Length of the wire - The longer the wire, the more the electrons have to travel, thus increasing resistance. Temperature - When the temperature of a metal is increased, the metal ions inside vibrate more, and so the electrons which are moving through have a higher chance of hitting a moving metal ion rather than a stationary

• Word count: 940
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Copper, Constantan, Manganan and Nichrome - which is the best conductor?

Physics Coursework Copper, Constantan, Manganan and Nichrome - which is the best conductor? Background Knowledge Conduction of electricity in metals requires a potential difference across two ends of a conductor for it to occur. This causes a flow of electrons in the wire, more commonly known as a current. The electrons in this current are free, meaning they are can move around in the wire freely. The number of free electrons depends on the wire. The more free electrons the better a conductor it will be. The electrons may however come up against some resistances while flowing in the current. Resistance is the result of energy loss as heat. These resistances or obstacles, which slow the electrons down, are other electrons and the fixed particles of the metal i.e. atoms. These slow the electrons down because while they are flowing freely they collide with the other electrons and the fixed particles. These collisions convert some of the energy that the free electrons are carrying into heat. The resistance of a length of wire is calculated by measuring the current in the circuit (in series) and the voltage across the wire (in parallel). Then the resistance can be found by incorporating these values into this formula: - R = V / I Units V = Potential Difference (Voltage) measured in volts I = Current measured in amps R = Resistance measured in ohms It is also required to

• Word count: 2907
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science