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Effects of Exercise on Blood Sugar Level and Pulse Rate.

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Introduction

Biology Course Work 1 Topic: Effects of Exercise on Blood Sugar Level and Pulse Rate. Hypothesis: I hypothesize that during exercise the blood sugar level will rise and the pulse rate will increase. Background Knowledge: One of the most important metabolites in the blood is glucose. Its level must be controlled strictly. Glucose is the main respiratory substrate and must be supplied continuously to cells. The brain cells are especially dependant on glucose and are unable to use any other metabolites as an energy source. Lack of glucose results in fainting. The normal glucose level in the blood is 90 mg per 100 cm3 blood, but may vary from 70 mg per 100 cm3 blood during fasting up to 150 mg per 100 cm3 blood following a meal. During exercise, the rate of respiration will increase because the body has to break down more of sugar store in presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide and water to produce energy. The following equation is a summary of the reaction: C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATPs Effects of Exercise on Body's Metabolic Processes and Hormone Production: Respiration is a process by which the body uses sugar for energy. Carbohydrates, one of the three principal constituents of food, form the bulk of the average human diet. The end product of the digestion and assimilation of all forms of carbohydrate is a simple sugar, glucose, commonly called grape sugar when found in food, or blood sugar when found in the human body. The metabolism of fats and of certain protein substances also sometimes leads to the production of glucose. Glucose is the principal fuel that the muscles and other portions of the body consume to produce energy. It is present in every cell and almost every fluid of the body and maintaining its concentration are among the most important processes in human physiology. ...read more.

Middle

After 10 minutes I will call the volunteer back from the field and without much time delay, I will carry out the same steps as mentioned before to check the pulse rate and blood sugar. I will follow the same procedure for all the 10 volunteers separately. I will record my new results in the table. This is a format of the table I plan to use. Before Exercise After Exercise Subject Age (years) Weight (kg) Pulse rate (beats/min) Blood Sugar Level (mg/dm3) Pulse Rate (beats/min) Blood Sugar Level (mg/dm3) Prediction: After exercise I expect the volunteer's blood sugar level to increase due to increased energy requirements and I also expect the pulse rate to increase due to increase in heart pumping rate. Variables: -The type of food consumed before exercise could vary from volunteer to volunteer would cause a slight diffrence in results. -Some volunteers maybe be regular exercisers while other may not , this could cause variations in the result. -Height and Weight are factors that have to be controlled. -Age and Sex of the individual are two other factors that could influence the effect of exercise on rate of breathing and pulse rate. I have therefore chosen volunteers of the same age group, 15, and they are all boys. I also made sure that they had all consumed their meal one hour before exercise but I could not control factors of weight, height and the type of food they consumed. Implementation: Method: Just as I had planned, I took 10 healthy volunteers. I wore my gloves before I started the experiment. I lined up all the volunteers and weighed them using the digital weighing machine. I recorded my results in the weight column of the table. Then for each volunteer I carried out the following steps to check the volunteer's blood sugar level. I dipped a cotton ball in alcohol. Step 1- I cleaned the finger tip of volunteer with an alcohol swab. ...read more.

Conclusion

The heart can function at a faster rate without being under much pressure. So blood sugar level shows little or no increase for these regular exercisers. In fact as seen in this investigation there can be a decrease in value of blood sugar after exercise, possibly because the body has used up and is in the process of using up all glucose present in the blood at that instant. Another factor that could be the reason for this variation is the food intake of the volunteers before exercise. Some volunteers may have had a high-sugar diet before exercising, so when tested before exercise blood sugar level is already high in the body. After exercising, most of the sugar content would be used up for energy, therefore when blood sugar level is tested after exercise, we can see a decrease. Lastly weight and height are the two other variables that should have been controlled because every body produces energy according to the body's requirements. A taller body with high mass needs more energy to exercise than shorter body with lower mass. Limitations: * When controlling the food intake of the volunteer it is not possible to take into consideration the typical kinds of food they are consuming. * While exercising, is it difficult to make sure that all volunteers exercise at the same capacity because some volunteers may have greater stamina than others. Steps to Improve: * I would increase the number of volunteers so that I can have a still wider range of values. * I would categorize the volunteers into different categories. For e.g.: volunteers who are regular exercisers in one category while volunteers who are occasional exercisers in another while those who seldom exercise I will include in the last category * I would ensure that I they have a constant weight and height factor. * I would carry out my investigation varying factors like temperature while keeping other factors constant. * I would allow the volunteers to exercise for a longer period of time to improve the reliability of my results. ...read more.

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