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GCSE Chemistry Coursework-Burning Fuels Investigation

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Introduction

GCSE CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK- BURNING FUELS INVESTIGATION CANDIDATE NO. 8218 - ANDR� SKEPPLE-GARRAWAY AIM: My aim is to measure the energy released by a series of alcohols. APPARATUS: Fuel, matches, stand, clamp, steel can, calibrated digital scales, thermometer (digital or alcohol), and stopwatch. METHOD: Fill can with 150cm� of water. Then get a stand and the clamp and connect the clamp to the stand if it not already connected. Place the can filled with water and tighten it with the clamp. Then place a thermometer, either a digital on or an analogue one which uses alcohol and record the waters room temperature before the experiment. Then get the chosen fuel in its spirit burner container and measure its mass before the experiment on the digital scales and record it down in the table. Then open the cap of the fuel and light the wick of the burner with matches and heat the water with the flame for 3 minutes using the stopwatch and move the can slightly above the flame so that the flame is barely touching the steel can. Repeat with same fuel three times and then extinguish the flame by snuffing the flame putting the lid back on the spirit burner. Afterwards, measure the fuels mass on the scales again and record the waters temperature after the experiment. ...read more.

Middle

Mass after (/g) Start temp. (�c) End temp. (�c) Methanol CH�OH n/a n/a n/a n/a Ethanol C�H5O4 191.31 190.38 22.1 41.1 Propanol C�H7OH 224.17 220.78 22.3 35.2 Butanol C4H9OH 221.32 215.94 23 54 Pentanol C6H13OH 184.55 183.43 22.3 37.4 Hexanol C6H13OH 213.28 210.99 26 39 Heptanol C7H15OH 233.84 239.14 23 85 Octanol C8H17OH 231.95 229.72 22 41 RESULT AVERAGES: Name of fuel Average temp. rise Energy released Methanol CH�OH n/a n/a Ethanol C�H5O4 17.8 6300 Propanol C�H7OH 32 4675.5 Butanol C4H9OH 26 4561.5 Pentanol C6H13OH 17.5 11250 Hexanol C6H13OH 21.1 7153.9 Heptanol C7H15OH 31 9231.3 Octanol C8H17OH 19.8 5829 MY RESULTS AGAINST THE BOOK OF DATA: Name of fuel Results from experiment (j/g) Book of data results (j/g) Methanol CH�OH 11960 Ethanol C�H5O4 6300 17450 Propanol C�H7OH 4675.5 20810 Butanol C4H9OH 4561.5 23070 Pentanol C6H13OH 11250 24700 Hexanol C6H13OH 7153.9 25470 Heptanol C7H15OH 9231.3 26890 Octanol C8H17OH 5829 27660 Graph is on next page... CONCLUSION: According to the results the outcome is that if a fuel has more carbons in its atomic structure, the more energy it releases during combustion. This information was received from looking at the Book of Data results and not the results from the experiment. This is because the experiment results have no correlation to the book of data's results and they are not in numerical order like the results in the Book of Data and they are not as high as the Book of Data's. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the case of the time limit, the investigators should use stopwatches that alarm or alert the users when the set time for the experiment counts down to the alert to make the time used to perform the experiments are equal. Therefore the new method is to place 3x150cm�of water in a refrigerator 30 minutes before the start of the experiment and make sure that the water has the same temperature. Then collect the chosen fuel and weigh it in three different calibrated scales and then find the average mass before combustion. Do the same for the average mass after combustion and the same with each fuel. Place the steel can 27cm above the surface the experiment is on. Collect one or two boxes of matches that are the same and are lit the same way. Light the fuel and place three digital thermometers in the can filled with water and correctly countdown 3 minutes on two stopwatches. After the end of the trial measure the temperatures from the three thermometers and then average them out and work out the average temperature rise and the energy released. To make sure that the room temperature is the same and to cut down on time consumption try to get as many people to perform the different experiments at the same time. ...read more.

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