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GCSE Chemistry - Obtaining Zinc Oxide from Calamine

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry coursework Obtaining Zink Oxide from Calamine Jacob Confino 11d Planning Introduction: Before zinc was recognized as an element zinc ores were used for making brass, which was a mixture of copper and zinc. Calamine is a mineral, which is mainly composed of the compound calamine, which has the formula ZnCO3. The metal zinc is extracted industrially. If you heat calamine it decomposes into zinc oxide and also carbon dioxide. This sort of reaction has a reaction and its formula is: ZnCO3(s) ZnO(s) + CO2(g) This gives you the calculation of the theoretical mass of zinc oxide, which is obtainable if you heat the mass of calamine. I am going to heat up gram by gram of calamine and see how the reaction changes as the amount of calamine is added. I am going to start with 1 gram in a boiling tube, then I will heat it until it changes colour to yellow (which shows that the reaction has taken place), then I will put it in my test tube rack until it changes back to its original colour (white) I will then go and take a reading to see how much it weighs. I will then see how much the weight has gone down by. Then I will reheat it until the weight does not go down anymore, then I know that I have obtained the most zinc oxide possible. Aim: The aim of this experiment is to produce a conversion chart, which shows how much zinc oxide can be made by heating different masses of calamine. Also, to produce a conversion chart showing the theoretical conversion values worked out from a equation, and I will compare the two charts. I will find out how much zinc oxide can be made from heating different masses of calamine Theory: The equation that I am going to use to find the amount of moles and find and crate a theoretical conversion chart, which will show the masses of zinc oxide that, can be produced by heating 1-10grams of calamine. ...read more.

Middle

I then repeated this same process for 2.00g, 3.00g, 4.00g, 5.00g, 6.00g, 7.00g, 8.00g, 9.00g and then 10.00g of calamine. Apparatus: * Boiling Tube x10 * Test Tube Rack * Goggles * Bunsen Burner * Heatproof Mat * Mineral Wool * Digital Scales * Spatula * Splint * Test Tube Tongs Safety Precautions: Because I am going to be using a Bunsen burner, I must have a heatproof mat underneath it. Goggles must be worn because chemicals or broken glass could enter the eyes. Extra care must be taken when handling the heated test tube as it could burn the skin. Be careful not to waste or spill any chemicals and make sure to tuck your tie into your shirt throughout the experiment, and tie all hair back. Results verification: To verify my results I will record my results on a table in Excel with the following columns: Experiment Mass of test tube(g) Mass of test tube + Calamine(g) Mass of test tube +Calamine +Plug Mass of test tube + zinc oxide + plug (1) Mass of test tube + zinc oxide + plug (2) Mass of test tube + zinc oxide + plug (3) I will fill this table in as I am doing the experiment and at the end of the experiment I will plot a graph of mass of ZnO obtained against Mass of ZnCo3. When I draw the graph I will put a line of best fit which, I am expecting to go from the origin of the graph in a straight line though it. If I come across a result that is not expected and looks strange then I will simply just re-do what ever it was that gave me the strange result. I will use the graphical evidence that I have obtained before the experiment to see if my graph is correct or if I have done the experiment wrong. ...read more.

Conclusion

a straight line this could mean that not all the calamine had not reacted properly or it could mean that there are impurities in the source of calamine that I used in my experiment. If I wanted this to not be a problem if I did this experiment again I would heat my calamine for longer and then let it cool down to room temperature. I am going to find out how much of impurities where in my source of calamine. Theoretical values (g) to 2.D.P average mass of zinc oxide obtained (g) 0.65 0.69 1.30 1.70 1.94 2.55 2.59 2.90 3.24 3.77 3.89 4.61 4.54 5.17 5.19 6.39 5.84 7.44 6.49 7.46 If I take away the average mass of zinc oxide obtained from the theoretical values. I will get the amount of impurities in the source of calamine that I used. Sum for grams of impurities in the source of calamine Mass in grams for the amount of impurities in the source of calamine. 0.69-0.65 0.04 1.70-1.30 0.40 2.55-1.94 0.61 2.90-2.59 0.31 3.77-3.24 0.53 4.61-3.89 0.72 5.17-4.54 0.63 6.39-5.19 1.20 7.44-5.84 1.60 7.46-6.49 0.97 This shows that in my experiment that there were impurities in my calamine I will find the average of impurities in my calamine. This was 0.7 (g) of impurities I worked this out by adding all the Mass in grams of impurities in the source of calamine together and then dividing it by 10. The impurities in the calamine could be a number of different things the main one could be water, I think this is the main impurity because when I heated my calamine I noticed there was water vapor around the mineral wool, I think this is the water in the calamine. It could have got into the calamine from the room that it is stored, for water to get into the calamine the room would have to be a dark damp room and the calamine would absorb the water because it is in the room. ...read more.

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