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Hooke's Law Lab

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Introduction

Devanshi Sodhani

Class 10-C

PHYSICS LAB REPORT

TITLE:

VERIFYING HOOKE’S LAW

AIM:

The aim of performing this experiment is to find out if the extension produced by a spring is directly proportional to the tension force applied to it and thus verifying Hooke’s law.

THEORY:

In 1676 the English physicist Robert Hooke discovered that elastic objects, such as metal springs, stretch in proportion to the force that acts on them. Despite all the advances that have been made in physics since 1676, this simple law still holds true.

This means that if a weight is added to a spring, it will stretch in proportion to that force and when the force is removed, the spring will return to its original shape. The extension or the strain will keep increasing as you increase the weight added as long as the spring doesn’t remain stretched permanently.  A point is reached where the spring can’t stretch any more when more tension force is applied to it and snaps. This is defined as the ‘elastic limit’ of the spring.

The force constant ‘k’ of a spring is the force needed to cause unit extension, i.e. 5cm. If a force ‘F’ produces extension ‘e’ then,

k = F

       e

(Sourced from: Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

HYPOTHESIS:

Hooke’s Law states that the extension produced by the spring is directly proportional to the tension force applied to it.

...read more.

Middle

34.4

34.3

3.

14.8

300

43.2

43.2

4.

14.8

400

53.3

53.2

5.

15.1

500

62.9

63.1

PROCESSED DATA:

Weights added = force applied

100g = 0.1kg

Gravity= 10m/s2

Weight= 0.1 X 10

            = 1N

Table 2.1

Extension caused by adding weights on spring 1:

Sr.No.

Original length(cm)

± 0.05cm

Force applied (N)

Average new length

(Trial 1+ trial 2)

± 0.05cm

Change in length

(Extension)(cm)

± 0.05cm

1.

13

1

13.45

0.45

2.

13

2

15.75

2.75

3.

13

3

19.40

6.40

4.

13

4

24.55

11.55

5.

13.2

5

28.15

14.95

Table 2.2

Extension caused by adding weights on spring 2:

Sr.No.

Original length(cm)

± 0.05cm

Force applied (N)

Average new length

(Trial 1+ trial 2)

± 0.05cm

Change in length

(Extension)(cm)

± 0.05cm

1.

14.8

1

24.30

9.5

2.

14.8

2

34.35

19.55

3.

14.8

3

43.20

28.40

4.

14.8

4

53.25

38.45

5.

15.1

5

63.00

47.90

Table 3.1

Table to calculate the spring constant for spring 1:

Sr.No.

Force applied (F) (N)

...read more.

Conclusion

The pointers of the springs were not exactly horizontal thus causing the measurements to be slightly incorrect.It was not possible to take all the readings at eye-level thus causing parallax errors.Since the pendulum was oscillating too much, I had to use my hand to hold the spring steady.The ruler attached to the clamp stand to make the experiment more efficient. However, it was not in a straight line thus causing some inaccuracy in measurements. This would have caused extra force to be applied and the exact measurements could not be taken.All the weights were assumed to be 100g and their exact weight was not taken. Thus it is possible that extra or inadequate force may have been applied.

SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS:

  • More readings can have been taken to improve the accuracy of the experiment.
  • All the weights used should be measured on a digital balance before using them so that the exact force applied can be calculated.
  • The pointer of the spring should be totally horizontal to get accurate measurements of the extension.

CONCLUSION:

From the experiment performed above, it can be concluded that the Hooke’s law holds true for a metal spring. This is because the extension produced by the spring is directly proportional to the force applied on it. For the first spring, the results obtained are not very accurate due to the sources of errors identified above. However, the second spring gave very accurate results as I had hypothesized according to the theory. Therefore, this experiment is a reliable way of verifying Hooke’s law using a metal spring.

SOURCES:

Encarta Reference library

IGCSE Physics- Hodder Murray

Physics class notes

...read more.

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