• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How are aquatic invertebrates adapted for gas exchange?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How are aquatic invertebrates adapted for gas exchange? Some of the invertebrates that were observed had a large surface area to volume ratio like the flatworm, which was found close to rocks in shallow areas. The flatworms are able to flatten themselves, which increases the surface area meaning there is less distance internally in the flatworm meaning the amount of diffusion is reduced. In deeper areas of the river oxygen is in short supply so when the organisms go the surface maximum oxygen needs to be collected. This can be done by the use of hairs called plastrons on the under side of the abdomen to collect an air bubble from the surface so the organisms can return to the depths of the water and use the oxygen it has collected until it runs out. This sort of adaptation can be found on water beetles such as platambus maculates. There were some aquatic invertebrates that have tracheal gills that are seen by the small plates on the side off the organism with are linked to the tracheal system. ...read more.

Middle

in the process. This is useful for invertebrates such as leeches that live in deep water where not much oxygen is found. One of the other forms of respiratory structures that were observed in the river were aquatic invertebrates with breathing tubes or siphons that need to rise to the surface for the oxygen. These invertebrates live in the slow moving part of the river where they are not going to be washed away in the current while they are collecting the oxygen they need. When the organism needs oxygen it makes it's way to the waters surface with its breathing siphon just exposed at water level. The organisms breathing siphon can be 6cm or more in length meaning it doesn't raise any higher to the surface then it has to. In some cases the end of the siphon exposed to the atmosphere is covered with dense, tiny hairs, which stop water from getting into the siphon. ...read more.

Conclusion

There bodies are flattened each side so they travel though the water in a streamline way to reach the top as quick as possible. An aquatic invertebrate with these adaptations that was found in the river was a freshwater shrimp or gammarus, Freshwater limpets were found in the fastest moving water in the river as these organisms can cling to the rocks and never have to move meaning they need very little oxygen at all. The adaptations that are found on these aquatic invertebrates are all different to each other as it depends on where the organism is located in the river, the shallow areas, deep areas, or the riverbed. Invertebrates that live in shallow water areas are adapted to intake the oxygen they need for a short period of time and organism that live in deeper water need as much oxygen as they can obtain. The aquatic invertebrates that live in the deepest areas of the river are the most adapted out of all the organisms observed as these need to diffuse the oxygen from the water itself. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

This essay takes a brief look at the various adaptations that exist in aquatic invertebrates which enable them to obtain oxygen from their environment. It is largely based on observations made by the student of stream invertebrates and these first-hand observations lend the essay added interest.

However, the essay suffers from a lack of detail and leaves the reader asking a lot of questions. Species names are frequently omitted and the design features of each adaptation are omitted from the discussion. In what way is the skin of a leech ideally suited to gas exchange? How are tracheal gills designed to exchange gases efficiently? Where does the syphon on a drone fly larva actually deliver the oxygen to? And are the lungs of snails like our own? Adaptation is inextricably linked to design, and without describing the design of structures, it is difficult to understand how they adapt the organism to a particular habitat.

Finally, both an introduction and summary are needed to give the essay some shape.

3 stars

Marked by teacher Ross Robertson 24/06/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology CourseworkTo determine if the distribution of flora across Ellerbeck is due to chance. ...

    5 star(s)

    will hopefully be able to come in contact with the same species more than once and see if the conditions were similar. This investigation will provide me with qualitative data regarding the distribution of flora. I predict that this data will show that the distribution of flora is not down to chance but to outside physical and chemical factors.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Year 11 Module B4 Revision notes. Plants, photosythesis, biomass and the carbon cycle.

    4 star(s)

    Transpiration is the loss of water from the plant. Transpiration is caused by the evaporation and diffusion of water from inside the leaves. This creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf; more water is drawn up from the rest of the plant through the xylem vessels.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the relationship between heat loss and surface area to volume ratio

    3 star(s)

    water, will gain the heat and so the heat will be lost to the surroundings directly. Obtaining In a beaker containing 300cm3 Time / secs Temp. change in exp - 1 / �C Temp. change in exp - 2 / �C Temp. change in exp - 3 / �C Temp.

  2. Peer reviewed

    An Investigation into the Effects that Different Light Intensities have on the Speed of ...

    5 star(s)

    As soon as the last woodlouse had been pushed into the container, the 'record' button was pressed on the video player. Their movements were recorded for 1 minute (the time was displayed on the video player so no stop clock was needed)

  1. GCSE Biology - Photosynthesis Coursework

    It also shows that while my outer limits are justified, it would be better to take more readings between the distances of 10 and 20 centimetres, as the distance between the points is large at this point, and so I have decided to take readings at the following distances: 5,

  2. What effect does the sucrose concentration have on osmosis?

    % Sucrose % Water Volume (cm3) Initial Mass (g) Final Mass (g) Change in Mass (g) Average Change in Mass(g) % Difference Average % Difference 1 0.00% 100.00% 20 1.86 2.20 0.34 18.00% 2 0.00% 100.00% 20 1.88 2.29 0.41 21.00% 3 0.00% 100.00% 20 1.87 2.23 0.36 0.37

  1. An Investigation into Species Diversity with distance along a Pingo.

    Closed-system pingoes on the other hand, whilst occurring in low-lying flat areas, occurred where permafrost was continuous i.e. around the poles where the climate was most severe. There are a large number of pingoes in the Common, the largest being approximately 2m deep and 10-15m in diameter.

  2. Investigate and compare, the biodiversity of freshwater invertebrates, of two water bodies, with high ...

    Water Velocity will affect the results because Stream velocity determines the kind of organisms that can live in a stream (some need fast-flowing areas; others need quiet pools.) Also, fast moving streams generally have higher levels of dissolved oxygen than slow streams because they are better aerated.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work