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How does Acid Rain Affect Buildings.

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Introduction

Extended Essay: How does Acid Rain Affect Buildings Abstract: In this Extended Essay I am investigating the pH of the acid rain in Munich by titrating the collected rain water in Munich. I am also investigating the effects of the acid rain on the buildings in Munich which are made out of limestone and I am also working out how long it would take for the building to disintegrate with a certain pH value. Judging on the results the pH value in the Munich area is not low enough to destroy the buildings made out of limestone even in the long run. The pH is still around 5.5 which would mean that it would take around xxxx (didn't test that yet) years for the building to take significant damage. Table of Contents Contents Page Number Abstract, Table of Contents 1 Introduction, Variables, Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis (continued), Aim Method, 3 Results Results (continued), Conclusion, 4 Diagram 2-a Conclusion (continued), Diagram 2-b 5 Conclusion (continued), Evaluation, 6 Works Cited, Bibliography Extended Essay: How does Acid Rain Affect Buildings Introduction: If the pH in the Munich area is too low then this would affect the buildings in Munich significantly. This is because most buildings are made out of limestone because around 100 years ago limestone was a good material to build with but it was still unknown that acid rain would affect limestone to this extent. ...read more.

Middle

The sulfuric acid in the rain reacts with the marble to form calcium sulphate which can be washed off by the rain water thus exposing more of the marble to erosion. Also salts could form inside the stone causing it to crack and disintegrate slowly from the inside. Aim: To test the rainwater in Munich and to find out the pH level of the rain and the affect on buildings made out of limestone in Munich. Method: 1. Set up a safe rain water collector where the rain will fall directly into the container so that contamination is kept to a minimum. For each sample collect at least 300 mL of rainwater. 2. Keep the rainwater which is not yet being used for experiments in a safe glass container which is sealed to prevent evaporation. 3. Set up the apparatus as shown in diagram 1-a 4. Fill up the burette with 1*10-4 mol L-1 NaOH. 5. Fill a beaker up with 150 mL of the collected rain water. 6. Put 1-2 drops of methyl orange indicator in the beaker containing the rainwater. 7. Titrate the rainwater with the NaOH. 8. Titrate until the indicator changes color then note the burette reading at which the color changed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because I had to standardize the chemicals first the burette error could have affected the whole experiment so that the results are not displaying the actual pH of the rainwater. However the possibility of that occurring is low. Of course the readings of any other equipment could have been faulty too for example pipetting the solutions could have lead to a wrong result due to misreading the pipette. These errors however only affect the results minimally so are of no major concern. Another source of error could be from the collection of the rainwater. Since the rainwater was collected outdoors in an open container, contamination can not be excluded. Any substance could have gone into the container and alter the pH of the rainwater thus leading to false results. To reduce the error due to readings to a minimum I repeated my experiments several times with the same sample of rainwater to ensure that the possibility of a false reading is kept low. For the problem with the contamination the most practical method was just to keep the container inside when it didn't rain and just leave it out in the rain long enough to get the wanted amount of rainwater needed for testing so that the container is not exposed to influences that could cause a false result for too long if there are any. ...read more.

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