• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hydro-Carbon Fuels and Society.

Extracts from this document...


Hydro-Carbon Fuels and Society. Hydro-Carbon fuels are some of the simplest and mot complex molecules man has refined for use. Most hydro-carbons are refined from crude oil by the process of fractional distillation, which I will go in to more depth later. Crude oil on its own is useless; however, its fractions are extremely useful. Modern society uses the fractions of crude oil for virtually everything. The hydro-carbons within crude oil can be use as fuels or to make plastics. As fuels, hydro-carbons are effective, can be efficient and relatively safe. As a result of this modern society uses hydro-carbons as the primary fuel, particularly in the combustion engine. The process of separating crude oil into its fractions is called fractional distillation. This is a simple process where the fact that different lengths of hydro-carbon chains have different boiling and melting points is used to separate the chains into useful products such as petrol, kerosene and diesel. Below is a diagram of the process. Another way in which we create more useful products from oil is cracking, by this it is meant that we take a long chain hydro-carbon such as bitumen into smaller, more useful hydro-carbons such a petroleum. ...read more.


As for CO2 it is known to be one of the green house gases. The green house gases have been linked to climate change and as a result are considered bad for the environment. Also a small amount of Hydrocarbons or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - produced mostly from unburned fuel that evaporates and Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, together called NOx) - contributes to smog and acid rain, and also causes irritation to human mucus membrane. A simple way to reduce the effects of exhaust emissions on the environment is to use a catalytic converter. This ingenious little device is located between the engine and the end of the exhaust pipe, as shown in the diagram. The converter it's self is made up of three main section, however to fully understand how it works we must first understand how it is controlled. Between the converter and the engine is a sensor which monitors the amount of oxygen in the exhaust stream. The sensor then tells the on board computer whether or not to increase or decrease the amount of oxygen entering the engine. ...read more.


Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a reasonable alternative, they are almost like batteries that recharge themselves whilst power is drawn from them. This is very good idea, however it requires a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen to make water and hydrogen is exceptionally dangerous, especially when stored. The other main alternative is hydrogen power. Hydrogen can be produced from water by using the process of electrolysis. The big problem with this is that the hydrogen can not be produced as quickly as a vehicle might need it. Probably the best alternative is to use vegetable oil. The vegetable oil when mixed with distilled alcohol (can be made from same crop) is a great alternative to diesel. It works perfectly in diesel engines and will not run out (as long as we produce vegetables). As a result of this it is my astute opinion that vegetable oil is the fuel of the future. It is therefore my conclusion that modern society in its current form could not survive with out hydro-carbon fuels and that transport particularly will not change unless some one can find a way to eliminate or at least limit the problems with one of the alternatives. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Burning Fuels Coursework

    4 star(s)

    134.21 133.53 Mass Used (g) 0.61 0.62 These results have been put back into the table, with the averages added on. Black Copper Aluminum Aluminum Starting Mass (g) 141.06 138.81 134.15 140.41 138.17 136.86 134.82 137.52 135.43 Final Mass (g) 140.43 138.21 133.53 139.85 137.61 136.28 134.21 136.89 134.85 Mass Used (g)

  2. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    This means that there will be more bonds formed and so the amount of energy given out will be greater. This connects with my original prediction that this would happen but when put in to practice, my results have

  1. Comparing fuels

    If I did this experiment again reducing heat loss would be my main concern. I had a few miscellaneous results. Another error is that of incomplete combustion. Complete combustion occurs if there are lots of oxygen atoms available when the fuel burns, then you get carbon dioxide (carbons atoms bond with two oxygen atoms).

  2. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    The principles underlying fractional distillation are illustrated her down. Imagine that a liquid of composition L1 is heated until it begins to boil at a temperature B1. Then the vapour in equilibrium with the liquid has composition has V1. If the vapour is condensed by meeting the cold surface of a distillation column, it condenses to form a liquid of composition L2.

  1. Energy Transfer in Fuels

    I need to keep certain things constant or I may need to change certain things so that it will be a fair test, and each fuel has the equivalent experiment. Here is a list of how I can make it a fair test: - Water - This will need to be constant at 100g.

  2. "Could Sainsbury's add value to their business by using an alternative fuel for their ...

    NPV is seen as the most accurate investment appraisal technique, whilst payback is the most commonly used, due to its simplicity. The investment appraisal has only been conducted on Natural Gas and LPG, since these are the only two viable alternative sources of fuel.

  1. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    A base can be defined as proton acceptor. Alkalis, in aqueous solution, produce OH- (aq) ions. So the process of neutralisation is the reaction between H+ (aq) and the OH- (aq) ions to give water. H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ? H2O (l) A strong acid or alkali is one that is fully ionised in aqueous solution.

  2. Notes on crude oil and its by-products.

    When they react, they expel a small molecule, usually water or hydrogen chloride. 5.19 Recall the types of monomers used in the manufacture of nylon Dicarboxylic acid and diamine. 5.20 Draw the structure of nylon in block diagram format. http://www.chemistryrules.me.uk/junior/making_nylon.gif The Industrial Manufacture of Chemicals 5.21 Recall that nitrogen from

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work