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Investigate one of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid.

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Introduction

PLANNING The Problem: To investigate one of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid. Background Knowledge: The balanced equation for the reaction that takes place between magnesium and hydrochloric acid is: Mg + 2HCl ==> MgCl + Cl From this equation, we can already see that it involves and acid and a metal, therefore: Acid + metal ==> salt + hydrogen The ionisation equation of the hydrochloric acid is: HCl(aq) ==> H + Cl This experiment will demonstrate the breaking of bonds. Bonds break in order to allow certain atoms to re-arrange before the new bonds are formed. When magnesium reacts with the hydrochloric acid, a particle of this acid must collide with a particle of the magnesium with adequate energy in order to break the bonds between the magnesium and the hydrochloric acid. This is known as the Collision Theory. The collisions between the particles must collide more often and with more sufficient energy in order for the rate of reaction to increase. Although, not every collision produces a successful reaction as they require a certain amount of energy to break bonds. This is called activation energy. The rate of a chemical reaction refers to the speed at which it happens, and different metals react at various rates. The progress of a reaction can be measured by the rate of a formation of a product or by the decrease of reactants. There are four main factors that can be varied to affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and acid: 1. Surface area (of the reactants) 2. Concentration (of the reactant) 3. Temperature 4. The presence of a specific catalyst If the surface area were increased by using a magnesium powder, then the reaction would speed up, as there are more particles that are able to collide with the hydrochloric acid. The products of a reaction are formed as a result of the collisions between the reactant particles. ...read more.

Middle

I will ignore this, as it does not affect the rate of reaction overall. OBTAINING EVIDENCE Below are 3 repeats of a set of 10 results ranging from 0.4M TO 1.4M: 0.4M-Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 0.6M- Time (secs) H20 (cm3 0.8M-Time (secs) H20 (cm3 0 50.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 10 49.7 10 49.0 10 48.2 20 49.2 20 47.4 20 44.2 30 48.2 30 45.5 30 41.0 40 47.3 40 43.7 40 37.3 50 46.5 50 41.9 50 33.5 60 45.8 60 40.1 60 30.0 70 45.0 70 38.4 70 26.5 80 44.2 80 36.7 80 23.8 90 43.4 90 34.8 90 21.0 100 42.5 100 33.2 100 18.5 1.0M-Time (secs) H20 (cm3 1.2M -Time (secs) H20 (cm3 1.4M -Time (secs) H20 (cm3 0 50.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 10 47.8 10 46.1 10 44.9 20 40.4 20 35.0 20 29.1 30 37.8 30 25.5 30 18.7 40 32.7 40 17.2 40 18.7 50 26.5 50 17.2 50 18.7 60 22.4 60 17.2 60 18.7 70 20.9 70 17.2 70 18.7 80 20.9 80 17.2 80 18.7 90 20.9 90 17.2 90 18.7 100 20.9 100 17.2 100 18.7 0.4M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 0.6M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 0.8M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 0 50.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 10 49.5 10 48.4 10 47.0 20 48.8 20 47.0 20 43.5 30 48.0 30 45.6 30 40.6 40 47.3 40 43.9 40 36.5 50 46.5 50 42.1 50 33.9 60 45.6 60 40.5 60 30.6 70 45.0 70 38.6 70 27.6 80 44.2 80 37.2 80 25.5 90 43.4 90 35.5 90 22.7 100 42.8 100 33.6 100 20.7 1.0M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 1.2M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 1.4M - Time (secs) H20 (cm3) 0 50.0 0 50.0 0 50.0 10 47.2 10 46.5 10 44.2 20 39.0 20 32.8 20 27.3 30 31.3 30 22.5 30 15.7 40 25.6 40 18.5 40 15.7 50 21.2 50 18.5 50 15.7 60 20.0 60 18.5 60 15.7 ...read more.

Conclusion

For both molar strengths, at first the error bars are very close together, but as the time increases the error bars become further apart. There are a few reasons why this may have occurred; -I accidentally confused my results for 1.2M with 1.4M -As I recorded my results for 0.4M to 1.0M in one week, and my results for 1.2 to 1.4M the process of the experiment may have differed slightly. -Generally, the process may have changed, e.g. the bung may have been placed in the conical flask at different times. -The ribbons of magnesium may have been slightly different lengths. - When the reaction takes place bubbles of H2 are given off, which might stay around the magnesium, which therefore reduces the surface area of the magnesium and so the acid cannot react properly so this affects the results. -The time in which I swirled the magnesium in the hydrochloric acid may have differed. If I were to repeat the experiment I would make a few alterations to the process to ensure more accurate results. The first modification would be to take readings over a wider range. For example, I would use the range 0.0M to 2M. This would help me produce better graphs to analyse. The second change would be to take 5 repeats rather than 3, as I feel it would also help me produce more accurate results. This is because if there were any irregular results that I had not noticed or had simply produced, the averages would not be affected as much. I would also use a pencil to measure the magnesium ribbon, as I think that even the smallest difference in millimetres would make a variance. Finally, I would measure the amount of time that I swirl the magnesium ribbon in the hydrochloric acid so that the results are fair each time. If this process was carried out correctly, I predict the same statement as my original one. I would also predict that if the concentration was doubled, then the reaction rate would also double. GCSE CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK Moe Shimizu 11G ...read more.

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