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Experiment to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction: Investigation Experiment to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. Chemical reactions between substances are caused by the collision of particles. More collisions mean a quicker rate of reaction. In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The products are hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The equation for this reaction is as follows:- Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg (s) + 2HCL (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) Factors that affect the rate of reaction:- * Temperature * Mass of magnesium ribbon * Concentration of hydrochloric acid * Surface area of magnesium ribbon I have chosen to use the concentration of hydrochloric acid as my independent variable. These different concentrations can be varied easily and made up accurately for the experiment. Each experiment will be done four times so that an average reading can be calculated - ensuring an accurate and reliable conclusion. The measured variable will be the time taken for the same quantity of magnesium ribbon in each experiment to be used up in reaction. The constant variable will be the length of the magnesium ribbon used in each experiment. Rate of reaction = Gradient of the line of a graph plotted with time taken to cease reacting against concentration. ...read more.

Middle

Each 1cm quantity of magnesium will be cleaned with emery paper before use to eliminate contamination from other chemicals which may be on the surface. Each beaker of hydrochloric acid will be used only once. The 1cm lengths of magnesium will be measured and cut as accurately possible using a ruler with millimetre measurements and sharp scissors. The stop-clock used will be accurate to the nearest second. The variable I will change in each experiment is:- � The concentration of hydrochloric acid. The apparatus and chemicals used for my experiment will be as follows:- � 2 large beakers. � 5 conical flasks � a large measuring cylinder (that holds up to 25cm3 of liquid) � supply of 2M concentration hydrochloric acid � roll of magnesium ribbon � supply of distilled water � stop-clock � ruler Safety Throughout all experiments I will be cautious when handling chemicals and wear the following safety items at all times:- � lab coat � safety goggles Method One large beaker was taken and filled with 2M hydrochloric acid. Another large beaker was taken and filled with distilled water. A stop-clock was taken and set aside. Five conical flasks and a measuring cylinder were taken. The measuring cylinder was used in the following way to achieve different concentrations:- 25cm3 of HCL = 2 mol.dm-3 21cm3 of HCL + 4cm3 water = 1.75 mol.dm-3 19cm3 of HCL + 6cm3 water = 1.5 mol.dm-3 12.5cm3 of HCL + 12.5cm3 water = 1 mol.dm-3 6cm3 of HCL + 19cm3 water ...read more.

Conclusion

I also checked my calculations with a calculator to make sure I had not mad any errors. I did have one anomaly in my results, which was the rate of reaction (gradient calculation) for 1.75M. This rate of reaction was 0.01 higher than the 2M rate of reaction, going against my prediction and causing an abnormality in the curve on my graph. This may have been caused by the acid used to make up/water used to dilute the 1.75M of hydrochloric acid being at a higher temperature than the rest. If the liquid were at a higher temperature, the particles inside would have more energy and so be moving around faster. This would mean HCL and magnesium particles would collide more frequently, thereby increasing rate of reaction. I think that my results on graph 1 were suitable to draw an accurate best-fit line. The points are all joined by the line. I used 5 different concentrations which were in a suitably wide range. If I were to repeat the experiment I would use a slightly wider range of concentrations to expand my conclusion, such as 1.25M, 0.75M and 0.25M. If the resources were available, I would also extend the range to higher concentrations than the 2M I was restricted to in this investigation. Further investigation could also include using another factor as my independent variable. I could differ the surface area of magnesium in my experiments, and see how this affects rate of reaction; in what way and if there is a definite proportional relationship. ...read more.

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