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Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Emily Grant 2003 Science Coursework Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction Rate Of Reaction The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction takes place-i.e., how long it is before the reactants are fully reacted, and how much product is produced in a certain period of time. The rate of reaction is affected by the reactivity of the substances; for example, potassium is more reactive than iron. There are various different rates of reaction that can be measured: (1) Forward Rate: The rate of the forward reaction when reactants become products. (2) Reverse Rate: The rate of the reverse reaction when products recombine to become reactants. (3) Net Rate: The forward rate minus the reverse rate. (4) Average Rate: The speed of the entire reaction from start to finish. (5) Instantaneous Rate: The speed of the reaction at one moment in time. During a chemical reaction, the bonds between the atoms of substances are broken and the atoms rearrange themselves to form new bonds. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction; atoms may rearrange, but after the chemical reaction has taken place, there is still the same number of atoms, and therefore the same amount of matter. The Rate of Reaction is just to do with how quickly this takes place. There are many variables which affect the rate of reaction; in this experiment, I will be investigating the effect that concentration has on the rate of a reaction. Aim In this investigation, I hope to discover the effect that concentration of Hydrochloric acid has on the rate of reaction with marble chips (Calcium Carbonate). Planning The reaction I will be investigating is between calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (in the form of marble chips) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate --> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water Hcl(aq) ...read more.

Middle

50 53 57 60 80 4 6 8 11 13 16 19 21 23 26 29 31 34 38 40 44 47 50 70 4 5.5 8 9 11 14 16 18.5 20 21.5 25 27 28.5 30 33 35.5 38 40 60 4 5 5 8.5 10 13 15 16.5 19 20 24 25 29.5 32 33 34 35.5 38.5 50 2.5 3.5 4 5 6.5 9 9.5 11 12.5 13 14 15 17 18 20.5 23.5 24 24.5 40 2 3 3.5 4 5 5.5 6 7 8.5 10 12 13 14.5 15.5 16.5 18 20 21.5 30 3 4 4.5 5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 11 12 12.5 20 3 3 3 3.5 4 4 4.5 6.5 5 5 5 5 5.5 5.5 5.5 6 6.5 6.5 10 3 3 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 5 5 5 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Volume of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)/cm3 at 10 second intervals when concentration is 100% acid 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Reading 1 7 10 12.5 16 19.5 23 26 30 32.5 36 40 44.5 47.5 52 55 59 62 66 Reading 2 5 7 11 15 18 21 24 28 32 35 40 44 48 52 55 60 63 67 Average 6 8.5 11.75 15.5 18.75 22 25 29 32.25 35.5 40 44.25 47.75 52 55 59.5 62.5 66.5 Volume of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)/cm3 at 10 second intervals when concentration is 90% acid 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Reading 1 4.5 7.5 10 13.5 17 19.5 22.5 25.5 28.5 32 34 39 41 44.5 48 51 59 56.5 Reading 2 4 6 9 12 16 18 22 25 27 31 35 39 41 42 ...read more.

Conclusion

There is nothing I could have done to alter this fact, but it was an unfortunate occurrence. It is this occurrence that caused the anomalous results in the reaction where the concentration was 90% acid, circled on the graph. The surface area of the marble chips could also slightly have affected the rate of reaction, as I mentioned in my plan; however, I made a point of using two similarly-sized chips weighing in total 1g for each experiment, so that the surface area couldn't change too much from experiment to experiment. Something else which has to be taken into account is the fact that the gas had to go up the delivery tube to the syringe, against gravity. On the higher concentrations when a lot of gas was being produced this was probably not a problem, but on the lower concentrations, in some cases there may not have been enough pressure to push the gas up the syringe. I think that I obtained enough evidence in order to allow me to draw a conclusion, because I took my readings over a large range. I also took the readings very close together, every 10 seconds. The fact that I used such a large range, and did so many experiments means that any anomalous results aren't of such consequence, because there are always other results very close in time or concentration to these. FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS There are many ways in which I could extend this sort of investigation, for example I could investigate how surface area or temperature effect this same experiment; e.g. keeping the concentration the same but using different sizes of marble chips, or heating the experiment etc. Other reactions I could investigate include the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl + sodium thiosulphate --> sodium chloride + sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water), or the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution (hydrogen peroxide --> oxygen + water). Using either of these reactions, particularly the second, I could also investigate the effect that a catalyst has on the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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