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Investigation into the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and dilute Hydrochloric Acid in water.

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Introduction

Investigation into the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and dilute Hydrochloric Acid in water Planning I am measuring the rate of reaction of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. This is a precipitation reaction When hydrochloric acid is added to sodium thiosulphate (VI) fine particles of solid sulphur are formed. These particles are not quite small enough to dissolve and not quite big enough to settle on the bottom as a precipitate. The particles remain suspended n the liquid; this is known as a colloid, these particles cause the liquid to turn opaque, the reaction that takes place is shown in the following equations: sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid -> sodium chloride + sulphur + sulphur dioxide + water Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) � 2NaCl (aq) + SO2 (aq) + S(S) + H2O(l) There are various variables I could use to look at the rate of reaction. These include temperature, concentration, surface area, pressure or catalysts. Once I ave chosen a variable I must take a preliminary experiment Rates of reaction Collision Theory For a reaction to occur firstly the particles of the reacting substances must collide with each other, and secondly there must be a fixed amount of energy called the 'Activation Energy' for the reaction to work. If a collision between particles can produce enough energy then a reaction will take place. If there is not enough energy produced then a reaction will not take place. ...read more.

Middle

How will I get accurate results? I will make my results as accurate as possible by measuring the volumes with a burette, timing to the nearest second and by measuring the temperature of the solution before I start. I will repeat each reading three times to ensure my results are reliable and to eliminate any anomalous results, which I will then average out. How I will make it a fair test So that I am able to accurately compare the readings I have taken, my tests must be fair, I will ensure they are fair by: * The only thing that I will change will be the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate. * Taking the temperature before I begin, according to the collision theory and what factors affect the rate of reaction, as temperature increases so does the kinetic energy of the particles. If the solutions had had a higher temperature then another, it would have been unfair as it could cause the reaction to occur quicker. * The glassware will always be cleaned when being used again, so there won't be anything remaining in it. * I will always use the same cross each time. If I didn't and the cross was used with different pens or even different paper, it may show up stronger then another cross, so the cross may disappear in a longer or shorter time because of that. Safety precautions * Always wear a labcoat * Wear safety googles * Wash hands if come into contact with any chemicals ...read more.

Conclusion

This was only an increase of 0.38secs compared to an increase of 90.09secs for 60 C to 70 C (from 90.09secs to 180.18secs ). Clearly this is an enormous difference and disproportionate. The results could be correct but the results do appear to nearly double each time, except for in this instance. There are similar examples from the second experiment but they are not as obvious. Improvements that could be made if the experiment was repeated: When doing the results that took less time (some took around five seconds), it would have been more accurate to have two people so one person could put the substances together while the other person started timing Obviously it would have been good to have done more repeats. Two tests were managed each time but if one had been wrong this could have dramatically changed the average time and therefore rate of reaction. Increasing the surface area of a reactant will increase the rate of a reaction. This is because the reacting particles can only collide with he surface of the solid and the particles within the solid cannot react until those on the surface have reacted and moved away. Powdered calcium carbonate has a much larger surface are than the same mass of marble chips and therefore will react more quickly. All in all I think this was a good experiment and the best that could have been done with the time and resources available. The results supported my predictions and they seem to be fairly reliable results. ...read more.

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