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# Measuring Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Measuring Rates of Reaction In this coursework I will be investigating how the rate of reaction changes when certain factors of it are changed. The collision theory will play a big part in all the reactions. The collision theory is based on the kinetic theory and makes a collision between reactants before a reaction can take place. There are four key factors which can affect a chemical reaction, they are; ?Adding a catalyst- this is a substance that speeds up a reaction and is left chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. The more catalyst that is added, the faster the reaction will take place. It increases the rate by providing an alternative reaction path with a lower activation energy. ?Increasing surface area- having a smaller surface area means that there is less area exposed to be reacted with. Consequently the reaction will go slower. As the surface area increases the rate of reaction should also increase. Dust and grain silo explosions are good examples of surface area reactions. ?Increasing the temperature- the rate of reaction is highest when the temperature is highest. When the temperature is increased, the energy of the particles increases- they move faster and collide more often. In general, reactions take place faster at a higher temperature. ...read more.

Middle

To make it a fair test, I will use exactly 5.00g of marble chips, size 6-9mm each time. I won't change to the powder marble or any other size. I will conduct each experiment fairly and not change anything. To get detailed, precise results, I will conduct the experiment three times. This will ensure accurate data. I predict that the higher the concentration on acid, the quicker the reaction will take place as Hydrochloric acid is a reactor. Reaction rates can be increased if the concentration of reactants is increased. An increase in concentrations produces more collisions. The chances of an effective collision goes up with the increase in concentration. I also think that when the ratio of water to acid is 10-0ml no reaction will take place because water is a neutral liquid. I think that the reaction time will change equally each time a higher ratio of acid is added. After carrying out the experiments, then repeating it three times I collected and recorded the information on graphs which I have printed out. Unfortunately, sometimes after waiting for 5 minutes, there was still hardly any reaction at all. I did not show these results on the graph as there was hardly anything to show. I have written the information I gathered below. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I were to do the experiment again, I would definitely find a way to include all of the results. By the time I realised that I would not be able to include all of my results on one graph it was too late and I couldn't go back and do the experiments again. Next time I would not wait until each passed 30ml, or 5 minutes went past, I would perhaps just see how far each went after 5 minutes. That was I would be able to include all of my data onto one graph. I would repeat the experiment again three times though as I think this helped me a lot in seeing what numbers were anomalous or abnormal in the chart. To take this investigation further, I would suggest doing it again more than three times, or testing more types of acid, or using different sizes of marble chips. Next time I could also try experimenting with different factors which affect the rate of chemical reactions. I could add a catalyst to acid and marble chips using the same principles as the last procedure. Or I could see what happened if I heated the acid, water and marble chips and record how quickly air collected in the boiling tube. The colliding molecules would provide a quicker reaction. I could start off with a more concentrated acid next time, or maybe use more exact measurements. I could have concentrations to 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 etc. ...read more.

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