Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  • Level: GCSE
  • Subject: Science
  • Document length: 1387 words

 Standardization of sulphuric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Title: Standardization of sulphuric acid Theory: To define the unknown concentration of the sulphuric acid, sodium carbonate solution is used as a standard basic solution to undergo titration. A titration can find out the volume of the sodium carbonate solution which is used to neutralize a specific volume of sulphuric acid in the conical flask or vice versa. The result will be the same as we are objective to define the number of moles of reactants. The number of moles of sulphuric acid can be calculated base on the mole ratio 1:1 for sodium carbonate solution to sulphuric acid in the neutralization. We put sodium carbonate solution in burette and acid in conical flask because less acid should be used for the sake of safety. This time, sodium carbonate is used as a primary standard. A primary standard is a substance which can be used for the direct preparation of a standard solution. This is due to several advantages that sodium carbonate persists: First, it is obtained in high degree of purity. Then, it is stable and unaffected by the atmosphere which implies that the purity will not be affected. Besides, it is available in reasonable price and is not hygroscopic. Finally, its reasonably high relative formula mass reduces the weighing error. ...read more.

Middle

5.For strong acid and carbonate , methyl orange is a ideal indicator. As acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form acidic gas carbon dioxide, the resulting solution is slight acidic due to the dissolved acidic gas. Thus, the equivalent point reached in an acidic solution. Hence, Methyl orange, which has a low pKin value is used in this time. Although the end point this time can not be determined by using indicator for all acid-alkali titration, we can determine it by alternative means like using pH meter, and by conductivity measurements. Procedure: 1 Preparation, washing and cleaning of apparatus. a . The pipette was washed by tap water first , followed by distilled water and finally With the sulphuric acid. b. The conical flask was washed by tap water first, and then distilled water . c. The burette was washed with tap water, distilled water and finally rinsed with sodium carbonate solution. d. Beaker, filter funnel, volumetric flask should be rinsed with distilled water . * Beaker used to contain sulphuric acid, filter funnel for translating carbonate solution into burette should be dried completely lest the dilution of solution. 2 To make a standard solution of sodium carbonate a. Weigh about 2.65g of sodium carbonate .A weighing bottle should be used to contain the weighed sodium carbonate. ...read more.

Conclusion

The solution should be orange in color now. h. The solution is then added drop by drop now. After adding each drop of solution, the level should be recorded until the color turns to yellow. i. The resultant volume should be recorded just before the color change of yellow. j. The steps f to I should be repeated for at least 3 times to obtain a consistent result. Discussion: The final result is deviated from the exact answer. This is due to several errors. For instance, the reading is the end point reading, it is not the equivalent point. In addition, the end point may be difficult to observe as changing from red to orange is not particularly clear. To tackle these problems, a pH meter can be used to find out the point instead of using indicators. Besides, there may be some impurities in the sodium carbonate. Then, the incomplete washing and cleaning of apparatus may cause errors. For example, the beaker, pipette has not dried and contains some water inside. This will lead to the dilution of the acid. So, we should make sure that these apparatus are completely dried. The volumetric flask may not wash and clean thoroughly with a brush or the brush is dirty itself, this will cause some water in flask stick on the glass. Consequently, the flask will not contain 250ml solution exactly. We should use some dishwashing liquid and a clean brush to clean the volumetric flask. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. To carry out a titration between a strong acid and a weak alkali, to ...

    I think my second, third and fifth titrations are extremely accurate and precise as they are within 0.1cm3 of each other, and I must have followed my procedure extremely accurately. Both of those times, I did get the solution to turn clear at the exact point, and there was no purplish tinge to it.

  2. In order to find out the exact concentration of sulphuric acid, I will have ...

    Even though this sounds like a simply titration, actually it is not, because a normal titration involves 2 liquids; however sodium carbonate is a solid. As I already mentioned sulphuric acid is a strong acid, which reacts with weak base, therefore the new solution if acidic (pH<7).

  1. Titration with a primary standard.

    Step 8 is necessary because one of the products of the titration is carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide will react with water to form carbonic acid which can cause the reaction mixture to become acidic prior to the addition of enough H2SO4 to neutralize the Na2CO3.

  2. Determine the concentration of sulphuric acid by acid-base titration.

    * Pipette filler: is used to draw solution into the pipette. * Small filter funnel: used to safety transfer all the sodium carbonate the volumetric flask. * Glass rod: used to dissolve the anhydrous sodium carbonate in distilled water. * 250 cm3conical flask: * Distilled water: used to dissolve the anhydrous sodium carbonate.

  1. Freezing Point Depression

    Determination of Freezing Points of Solutions 1. Prepare 100ml of a solution with 5.85g of NaCl. 2. Prepare 10ml of a solution with 3.42g of sucrose. 3. Place a test tube 1/2 full of water in the ice bath. 4.

  2. In this experiment I am finding out how much sulphuric acid is present in ...

    Any contaminant may affect the results. Using the pipette filler and keeping it in a vertical position place, the tip against the wall of the conical flask (approx 30 angle) just above the surface of the sodium carbonate solution, transfer 25 cm3 of the sodium carbonate solution from the volumetric flask into to a 250 cm3 conical flask.

  • Over 180,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.