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Rate of Reaction Investigation

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CHEMISTRY COURSWORK Planning Introduction During a chemical reaction, a reactant can be converted into products. The reaction rate tells us the time the reaction had taken to form a product in a certain amount of reactant consumed. The five factors that affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: temperature, concentration, pressure, surface area, and catalysts. By watching how quickly the sulphur is formed, I think it will be possible to investigate the effects of temperature and concentration, pressure, catalyst using this reaction. To find the effects one may increase the temperature, concentration, pressure, or increase the rate of the number of catalysts present. But that is not my aim. I have to investigate how temperature and concentration effect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. As the sulphur is formed as one of the results of the reaction, it makes it increasingly difficult to see the cross, as the forming sulphur in this reaction makes the colourless solution into a cloudy colour. This is a precipitation reaction because sulphur is formed as one of the results. I will have to make it possible to use a technique where the colourless and clear sodium thiosulphate solution (Na2S2O3), had to react with hydrochloric acid (HCl), to produce a colour solution to make it difficult to see a cross which is under the sodium thiosulphate and HCl solution on a filter paper. The method that I shall use to proceed with this experiment will be: 1. First I will get all apparatus ready, and then I shall set it up. To set it up I may use the following techniques - * I could pour 0.20 moles/cm3 of sodium thiosulphate in a burette and place it on the side of a beaker. * I will have to draw a cross on top of a filter paper using the dark marker after this * Then pour 50cm3 of HCl into conical flask and place the flask on top of the filter paper with the cross on it. ...read more.


The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. I predict that as the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate increases the rate of reaction will increase. This means that any graph drawn will be curved if it is plotted against time. I also predict that graph drawn will have the greatest gradient in the beginning because number of increase or decrease in the rate of a reaction happens in the beginning, as more concentration is present. This can be justified by taking help of the collision theory. Particles with more energy are more likely to overcome the activation energy barrier to reaction and thus react successfully. If solutions of reacting particles are made more concentrated there are more particles per unit volume. But there has to be enough energy in the particles while the collision is taking place to overcome the activation barrier. But there are more particles so collision between particles is increased. All this can be understood better with full understanding of the collision theory itself: Collision theory simply means that 'for a reaction to happen there must be collision between two reactants. That means that the rate of reaction depends on two factors: the number of collisions, and the number of these collisions that are successful because enough energy has to be involved. There is a definite relationship between the concentrations of the reactants and the number of collisions. (My prediction). There is a definite relationship between the concentrations of the reactants and the number of collisions. This can be proved in the graph plotted in me analysis. I predict that as the temperature and concentration will increase the time taken for the reaction to take place decreases. This means the rate of reaction increases as it takes less time for a reaction to take place, so more take places per second. ...read more.


Clean the conical flask with dilute water, the acid, and then water as acid may get rid of all the impurities. 2. I could be careful and not wet the filter paper 3. Be more accurate when stopping the time. One may relay on the predictions and points I made about this experiment, as they are correct and reliable because either my graph or secondary sources can support them. The clock method of recording time cannot be fully relied on, as there can be some minor error while timing the rate of the reaction. If there are errors on my graph, eventually there have to be errors on my table of results. The graph can not be fully relied on because the curves and line of best fit is made by hand, so the curve may have some bents on it, and so could the straight line. The bumps could show that there is a higher or lower concentration, or more time or less time has been taken. The bumps would make a very minor inaccuracy, so my graphs can not be relied on to the maximum. My results are not completely to be unreliable on because: * The apparatus that I used was perfect. * The room temperature was kept content throughout the experiment. * My results are not looking too much under error next to the secondary resources and other pupil's graphs, so my experiment could partly be relied on. * I can not improve my method to make my results more accurate. The experiment can be continued, by adding more concentration. We can even extend this investigation by expanding on the aim. We can add on to the aim by including, 'how does pressure effect the rate of a reaction.' We can notice the effects of pressure by putting the solution of sodium thiosulphate and HCL in different size containers, and then check how much time it takes for 'X' to disappear. I predict that the smaller the container, the more the times taking for to disappear will decrease. ...read more.

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