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Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction Rates of Reaction Background information: Hydrogen Peroxide is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen. The formula for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide is a colourless, thick liquid which may blister the. To slow the decomposition of the peroxide into water and oxygen it is stored in dark bottles at a low temperature. It is a powerful bleaching agent and a good disinfectant. It is used to bleach hair, ivory, feathers, and delicate fabrics. Hydrogen peroxide always decomposes into water and oxygen gas: 2H2O2 � 2H2O + O2 The rate Hydrogen peroxide decomposes depends on the temperature and concentration. Hydrogen peroxide has many catalysts that make it decompose faster which include most of the transition metals and their compounds. The release of oxygen and energy of hydrogen peroxide as it decomposes can be dangerous. Spilling high concentration of Hydrogen peroxide on a flammable substance can cause an immediate fire. Factors: Concentration The concentration of a solution is how strong the solution is. If the concentration is increased, there are more particles in the same volume. This means there is a greater chance of them colliding, so the rate of reaction increases. In a low concentration, the number of collisions is low, so the rate of the reaction is slower. The concentration does not change the speed of the particles. Surface area Surface area Reducing the size of particles increases the rate of a reaction because it increases the surface area available for collisions to take place. ...read more.

Middle

Amount of oxygen (cm�) Red lead 8.3 Manganese dioxide powder 50+ Using this result I will be using manganese dioxide powder because it is a more effective catalyst then red lead. Also I will be using 0.05 grams of manganese dioxide powder rather then 1 gram because I believe that 1 gram was too much. I will be also changing the time to 30 seconds as believe that 1 minute was too long. Method: 1) First I will set out the experiment as shown in the apparatus. 2) I will then use a burette to measure accurately the 5 different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide: - 50 ml hydrogen peroxide - 40 ml hydrogen peroxide and 10 ml water - 30 ml hydrogen peroxide and 20 ml water - 20 ml hydrogen peroxide and 30 ml water - 10 ml hydrogen peroxide and 40 ml water 3) Then I will pour the measured hydrogen peroxide into the flask where I will add 0.05 grams of manganese dioxide powder. 4) Then I will quickly put the rubber bung on and start the stop watch. 5) When 30 seconds is up I will record the amount of oxygen in the graduator tube. 6) I will do this with all my concentrations and repeat this 3 times. Results: Test 1: Hydrogen Peroxide (cm�) Water (cm�) Amount of gas (cm�) Experiment 1 50 0 30.5 Experiment 2 40 10 26.8 Experiment 3 30 20 21.7 Experiment 4 20 30 14.6 Experiment 5 10 40 10.5 Test 2: Hydrogen Peroxide (cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

This result could have occurred because of negligence. To increase accuracy I could do the experiment a few more times and find the average of the results. To make my experiment even more accurate and efficient I can also change the equipment I used. This will give me measurements that are more accurate. Some of the equipment that I could have used includes: * Accurate scales that measures to more decimal places then the one I used * Stop watch with alarm as the experiment may be stopped few seconds late The reliability of evidence for my work is very valid and I believe it is sufficient to support my conclusion. The preliminary test gave me valuable information about the experiment as it helped me decide which of catalyst to use. Also it helped me decide on the amount of catalyst. If I were to do this experiment again I will have to have more than one person checking each measurement to make it as accurate as possible. I also can do the experiment a number of times resulting in results that are closer together. Then I would use only the concordant results to find the average, which would be more accurate. If I could take this investigation further it would be to investigate temperature and how if effects the rate of reaction. I could do this experiment by having a reaction happening at different temperatures and compare the rates of reaction. ...read more.

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3 star(s)

***
This is fairly basic investigation into the affect of concentration on rate of reaction. It is clear with some good diagrams used to support. It does however need to be written in more depth and the lack of experimental data limits its reliability. Improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/03/2013

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