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Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction Coursework Introduction A chemical reaction is the process in which substances change into other substances. Chemical reactions can only take place when atoms, molecules, or ions collide with each other in order to share or exchange electrons. What happens in chemical reactions is that bonds are broken down, and new ones are made instead. To start a chemical reaction, reactants are needed in order to mix and chemically combine to give products. The rate at which the products are formed is called the rate of reaction. In this investigation, the reactants that will be used are magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The products I will finish with will be magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Following the reactivity series, magnesium is shown as a more reactive chemical than hydrogen. In a displacement reaction, the more reactive metal will displace the less reactive metal from solutions of its compound. And so, this explains why magnesium displaces hydrogen, producing magnesium chloride and creating hydrogen. I know that different chemical reactions take place at different rates. This is proven through usual daily life occurrences. The ripening of fruit is an example of very slow chemical reactions. Precipitation is an ideal example of a very fast chemical reaction. Preparation The object of the experiment is to discover what affects the rate of reaction when hydrochloric acid and magnesium are combined to form a solution. To measure the reaction I plan to assess how much oxygen is created when the substances react. The aim of the reaction is to discover how much hydrogen is produced, via different concentrations, in a certain amount of time. The rate of a reaction is the speed at which reactants react to form a product. If there is a low rate of reaction it means that the molecules have less energy and therefore react at a slower speed. If there is a high rate of reaction it means that the molecules have a large amount of energy therefore react at a faster speed. ...read more.

Middle

I will then start the stop-clock and watch carefully until enough gas has entered the measuring cylinder so that all water has been completely emptied from it. As soon as all water disappears, I will stop the stop-clock and record the volume of gas produced. I will repeat each experiment three times so that my results are reliable and informative. The concentrations that I'm going to use are: * 2.0M * 1.8M * 1.6M * 1.4M * 1.2M I set up my apparatus as shown in the diagram overleaf. I then measured out the correct concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water, which were then added to the conical flask. To produce the desired concentrations, I had to add water to the solution. In order to reach the correct concentration - for example 1.0M, I added one part water to one part hydrochloric acid. I repeated this process for all the concentrations I used. Next I weighed out 0.20g of magnesium that was about 7cm long. I was careful not to bend the magnesium before dropping it into the flask so the acid would cover it completely. The magnesium was then dropped into the conical flask, the bung added before any gas could escape and the stop-clock started. I timed how long it took for 100cm3 of gas (the whole cylinder) to collect in the measuring cylinder and I recorded this in my results table. Each experiment was carried out three times so that I could take an average later. Apparatus * A syringe * Small beaker * Initial Cylinder (for storing Hydrochloric acid) * Measuring cylinder * Large water container (so gas cannot escape) * Long measuring cylinder * Safety goggles * Stopwatch * Small container (for storing magnesium) * Bung * Delivery tube * Conical flask connected to Bung and Tube * Magnesium * Hydrochloric acid * Scales Safety To ensure a high level of safety in my experiment I will ensure that: * When carrying out the experiment I will wear safety glasses in case of spillage or if the substances spit during reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

As all the points on my graph lie more or less on the line, I can say that there are no anomalous results. I think my results are reliable because I did each experiment 3 times. These repeats accounted for any anomalous results (although there were none). I believe that my results are sufficient enough to support my prediction and conclusion. Extension Work If I wanted to add proof to my results, or find other trends and patterns I could carry out some further work. This could include: 1. Trying the same reaction again but with a different metal (e.g. potassium) to see if I acquire any new patterns compared to magnesium. 2. Investigate a completely different reaction to find other patterns that relate to the original experiment (hydrochloric acid + hydrogen) regarding the rate of reaction. 3. I could keep a constant temperature for my reaction by using a water bath. This would ensure that temperature is not a factor affecting the rate of reaction. 4. The first is to find out what the rate of reaction would be for greater concentrations of acid but this would be more dangerous. It would be interesting to see how the rate increases compared to my greatest concentration of acid though. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 5. Another experiment that I could do is change the type of acid that I use. I could use sulphuric acid. This acid has a different molecular build-up to hydrochloric acid so I would find new results to analyse and compare. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series - (zinc, aluminium, iron, lead etc) to find the rate of reaction for these metals. I would have to use higher concentrations of acid, such as 3.00M or 3.50M, when working with these metals, as they are lower in the reactivity series than magnesium. This document was downloaded from Coursework. ...read more.

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