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Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

Experiment: Establishing the factors which affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Introduction: Metal carbonates react with dilute with dilute acids to give off carbon dioxide gas. The rate of the reaction can be gauged by the amount of gas produced at certain time intervals. In this experiment I will investigate the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid and the factors affecting it. This is the formulaic equation for the reaction: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric � Calcium chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO (s) + 2HCl � CaCl (aq) + H O (l) + CO (g) Factors affecting the rate of reaction: * The molar of the hydrochloric acid * The surface area of the calcium carbonate * Temperature * Amount of acid * Amount of calcium carbonate * Stirring of acid during experiment Preliminary work: In order to obtain a little more information on the effect of changing conditions of temperature, surface area and concentration on the rate of reaction, I carried out a small experiment. I conducted this experiment using magnesium and hydrochloric acid as consistent variables, and altered their testing conditions each time. I tested what effect varying the temperature, surface area and concentration of the acid would have on the speed of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

I will use 50ml of hydrochloric acid and 2g of calcium carbonate for each experiment making sure that the pieces of calcium carbonate are similarly sized so as to keep the surface area consistent. I will also repeat the experiment to ensure my results are precise. The formulation of each molar of acid is as follows: Concentration of acid Volume of acid Volume of distilled water 2 Molar 50 cm� 0 cm� 1.6 Molar 40 cm� 10 cm� 1.2 Molar 30 cm� 20 cm� 1 Molar 25 cm� 25 cm� 0.8 Molar 20 cm� 30 cm� Step by step: ==> Set out equipment as shown in diagram using scales to weigh the calcium carbonate and a measuring cylinder to measure the hydrochloric acid and distilled water. ==> Blend the hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate together and place the bung firmly into the top of the conical. ==> Begin timing and note down the amount of carbon dioxide given of at thirty second intervals. ==> Continue until 100ml� has been given off, and record the final reaction time. ==> Wash away the residual liquid and clean equipment. ==> Adjust the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and repeat method. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because without also increasing the amount of calcium carbonate chips the acid ceases to react because it has nothing to react with. Evaluation: I conducted my experiment as accurately and as consistently as possible. I ensured that each measurement was precise and that each experiment was fair. I also repeated each experiment to certify that my results were correct. I recorded all results correctly and none were found to be anomalous. The information I converted into graphs displayed itself as constant and concurred with my initial predictions as well as the scientific processes behind it. If I were to repeat my experiment I might utilize an alternative form of gaugeing the rate of reaction. For example; in my experiment I used a closed system (flask, syringe& bung), but should I repeat it I could experiment using an open system such as scales, a flask and cotton wool. I would measure the rate of reaction by placing the flask containing the acid on the scales, next zeroing the scales. Then I would add the reactive metal carbonate and plug the flask with cotton wool, monitoring the reduction in mass at regular time intervals. This would tell me how much carbon dioxide was being given off and how quickly, enabling me to calculate the rate of reaction. 1 ...read more.

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