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# Rates of Reaction - Molarity.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework - Rates of Reaction - Molarity (Concentration) Aim: to find out if the concentration of HCl affects the amount of hydrogen gas given off when a magnesium strip is added. Apparatus: Gas syringe - to take all the gas from the reaction and measure it Test tube - to hold the two reactants Measuring cylinder - to measure amount of water and acid Stop watch - to time the reaction Delivery tube - to deliver the hydrogen into the gas syringe Ruler + Scissors - to measure and cut the magnesium Reactants: Magnesium strip Hydrochloric acid 2HCl + Mg H2 + MgCl2 Preliminary Work: From preliminary work I have found out that using 20 cm3 of acid and using 2 cm of magnesium for 1 minute gives off sufficient gas to measure accurately and I also found that for the molarity I should not go lower than 0.6 as there of gas given off will be too slow. This is how I did the experiment: * I set up the experiment as shown above * Added 2 cm of magnesium strip to 20 cm3 of HCl * I then wrote down the volume of the gas every 5 secs for 1 minute of the reaction * Use concentrations 1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1 M to see which would be suitable. ...read more.

Middle

- so that acid does not transfer onto things that you touch and worse in your mouth (from the food that you eat). Results: Test 1 Molarity (M) Water/Acid cm3 T 5s I 10s M 15s E 20s 25s I 30s N 35s 40s S 45s E 50s C 55s S 60s 1 0/20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 17 19 20 21 0.9 2/18 2 4 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 0.8 4/16 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 0.7 6/14 2 3 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.6 8/12 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 Test 2 Molarity (M) Water/Acid cm3 T 5s I 10s M 15s E 20s 25s I 30s N 35s 40s S 45s E 50s C 55s S 60s 1 0/20 2 5 7 9 11 13 15 16 17 19 20 21 0.9 2/18 2 4 6 8 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 0.8 4/16 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 0.7 6/14 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 13 0.6 8/12 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 66 7 7 8 9 Average (2dp) ...read more.

Conclusion

My experiment went very well apart from my one anomaly (0.8 Moles) this is unusual as it happened both time as but these are some reasons why this happened: Sources of Error Gas syringe - was only to the nearest ml Magnesium - it used up the HCl around it and turned it into MgCl but did not react with the acid at the bottom making the reaction slower Heat - as the Mg reacts with HCl heat is given off speeding up the reaction Human Error - reading the gas wrong, starting or stopping the clock at the wrong time etc. Solving these Errors Gas syringe - use a position sensor on the gas syringe, which is attached to a computer. This will record the results with no anomalies. Magnesium - shake the test tube every so often Heat - can't solve this, the reaction is exothermic Human Error - use a position sensor on the gas syringe, which is attached to a computer. This will record the results with no human anomalies. Extension To extend the investigation I would do the experiment again put try and put right all the sources of error and see if my results come out perfect. ...read more.

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