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The aim of this investigation is to find out how the different concentrations of hydrochloric acids affect the speed of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid (hcl) and magnesium metal strip.

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Introduction

The reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Magnesium strip Introduction The aim of this investigation is to find out how the different concentrations of hydrochloric acids affect the speed of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid (hcl) and magnesium metal strip. The theory states that for any chemical reaction to occur, the reactant particles (hcl + mg) must collide with each other and must have sufficient energy i.e. the particles must collide fast enough and in the right direction. When the collision does not have enough energy no reaction takes place. If there are many successful collisions i.e. having the necessary amount of energy, in a given unit of time, the reaction not only occurs but also speeds up. When the successful collisions are not many, the reaction slows down. The speed of reaction is its rate; and depends on how many successful collisions there are in a given unit of time. The rate is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place i.e. rapid reaction is completed quickly The rate of the a chemical reaction is changed by the following factors: 1. Rate increases with concentration when the concentration of the acid (hcl) is increased, the reaction goes faster because the increase in the concentration makes the particles closer or crowded together which, in turn, increases the probability of acid particles colliding with the reactant (mg) more often. In dilute acid (hcl) acid particles are not that many therefore the chance of the acid particles hitting magnesium atoms is quite low. This means that at the start of a reaction there are plenty of acid particles colliding with magnesium the reaction has its fastest ...read more.

Middle

Time again noted in the table. * Then the concentration of the acid was lowered by the same amount (10 ml) and diluted with 20 ml of water was poured into the beaker. The magnesium strip was placed into the beaker, simultaneously starting the stopwatch. We followed the reaction visually to determine the exact time the magnesium strip disappeared to stop the stopwatch and measure the time taken for the magnesium to disappear completely, which is noted in the table. * Then the concentration of the acid is again lowered by 10 ml and diluted with 30 ml of water was poured into the beaker and the magnesium strip was placed in the solution at which exact time the clock started. We kept our eyes on the experiments so that we can determine the time the magnesium disappeared to stop the watch and measure the time taken for magnesium to disappear using the stopwatch and we noted it on the table. * Again with the concentration of the acid lowered by the same amount and diluted with 40 ml of water the whole process is repeated as above. All the measured times were regarded in the table below. It should be noted that we made sure that we started the stopwatch, at exactly the same time as the magnesium strip is placed in the solution to measure the start of the reaction to the finish of the reaction where the same care was taken to stop the stop watch at the point the magnesium disappeared, end of reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the lower 40%-20% concentration the time increases from ......to ... .... EVALUATION The experiment were done in a fair manner and the result are reasonably accurate because: * The stopwatch always was started and stopped at the right times (start to end) during the duration of the reactions of the reaction. * Great care was exercised to determine when the reaction had finished. * The same amount of magnesium-2cm in length. * The experiment was repeated three times and the measurement (reaction time in secs) was averaged to increase its accuracy. And exactly the same quantities of acid and water used in all experiments however it should be admitted that the visual determination of the end of the reaction could lead to incorrect time measurement as the attention of the experiment may lapse at a times some times measurements which greatly differed from others and disregarded in average calculations may be due to this fact. Also the hydrogen bubbles being given off by the reaction may stay be entrapped around the magnesium reducing its surface area and therefore hinder the acid to properly react. This would affect the measured reaction time or result. The experiment will be greatly improved if the magnesium strip is powdered. This increases its surface area, which makes more magnesium atoms exposed. So there is a greater chance of successful particle collision that quicker the rate reaction. Secondly the use of warm acid solution or catalyst would have made the reaction between acid and magnesium faster lastly measuring simultaneously the rate of production of hydrogen bubbles would have given control factor data to compare with the experiment result when both data are drawn in line graphs. Mohamed Ali GCSE Science coursework 30/04/2007 1 ...read more.

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