• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The aim of this investigation is to find out the factors that affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Becki miller Rates of reaction coursework Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out the factors that affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid. Background information Rain water once was the purest form of water available but now it is often contaminated by pollutants in the air. Factories and power stations give out oxides of nitrogen and sulphur as pollution, this combined with atmospheric moisture creates acid rain and over a period of time dissolves things made of marble such as statues and building fronts, this is because the acid dissolves the calcium carbonate in the stone and when the solution evaporates it forms crystals in the stone, as the crystals grow they break apart the stone and the structure crumbles. This is called chemical weathering. The investigation will be a laboratory based version of chemical weathering to determine how different concentrations of acid affect the rate of reaction. Plan The following is the chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Calcium + hydrochloric -> Calcium + water + Carbon Carbonate acid chloride dioxide CaCO + 2HCl -> CaCl + H O + CO There are a few ways of measuring the rate of this reaction as shown in the following... 1. Measuring the mass of calcium carbonate lost. 2. ...read more.

Middle

Powdered calcium carbonate Hydrochloric acid molecules are able to get to the calcium carbonate more easily and can collide with each molecule far more quickly, this speeds up the rate of reaction. Lump of calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric acid molecules have to break down the lump of calcium carbonate layer by layer which takes much longer and slows down the reaction speed. Method You will need... - 5 concentrations of hydrochloric acid ... * 0.10 molar * 0.50 molar * 1.00 molar * 1.75 molar * 2.00 molar - 75mg of medium sized calcium carbonate (5mg per experiment) - 1 gas syringe with rubber bung - 1 conical flask - measuring cylinder - electronic scales (to measure the mass of calcium carbonate) - Stopwatch - Clamp Stand Step 1- Set up the equipment in the list above as shown in the diagram on the following page. Step 2- Measure 20ml of hydrochloric acid and pour into conical flask. Step 3- Weigh 5mg of calcium carbonate and add it to the hydrochloric acid in the conical flask and quickly put the rubber bung in the top of the conical flask and start stopwatch. Step 4 - Time the reaction for 1 minute and read the measure on the gas syringe after 1 minute. ...read more.

Conclusion

The line of best fit shows that as the acid concentration increases so does the rate of reaction this is because the ratio of acid to water is increasing, therefore increasing the number of acid particles in the solution. The graph also shows a positive correlation. Evaluation As I mentioned in my evaluation I had one anomalous result, this was the rate of reaction between 1.0 and 1.75 molar acid concentrations, in comparison to my other results the reaction rate should have shown a larger difference than what it did as there is a greater difference between the concentrations of acids used than the rest. For better accuracy there should be a larger range of acids used between 1.0 and 1.75, for example: 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and so on. This could be done throughout in order to give far more accurate results. I think that there are many possible reasons for the anomalous result that I got, such as, tampered with acids, larger surface area of limestone (the different sizes of limestone may have become muddled up), there may have been a slight leak in the rubber bung and gas could possibly have dispersed into the surrounding atmosphere. The experiment could have been more accurate by using an electronic balance to measure the loss of mass rather than using a gas syringe to measure the gas given off by the hydrochloric acid and limestone. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    is in this formulae, as H3O+(aq) directs attention onto to the ion as a combination of a hydrogen and a water molecule (no set name has been given to the H3O+(aq) ions, they have been called, oxonium ions, hydroxonium ions and hydronium ions, so unless attention needs to be

  2. Antacid Investigation.

    Then open the tap and let out 0.5 ml of acid out and shake do this again until it does not turn back to purple. We are letting out only 0.5 ml out because it will make the results more accurate.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to determine the rate of reaction between thiosulphate(Na2S2O3) ...

    take place, giving me more accurate results and a more precise graph. Prediction: I predict that the greater the concentration of thiosulphate solution, the faster the chemical reaction will take place. Therefore, the cross will disappear more quickly due to the cloudiness of the solution.

  2. Investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between calcium ...

    * Taking care when handling chemicals, particularly Hydrochloric acid because it is an irritant. * I will not touch my eyes or mouth until I have washed my hands thoroughly with soap after conducting the experiment. * Taking care when using glassware to prevent injury.

  1. Aspirin Investigation

    have chosen to use: In step one: Oil of Wintergreen (Methyl Salicylate or Methyl-2-Hydoxybenzoate) O O C C OCH3 ONa OH + 2NaOH ONa +CH3OH +H2O (Sodium Hydroxide) (Methanol + Water) O O C C ONa OH ONa + H2SO4 OH + Na2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid)

  2. Reactivity Series Investigation

    without heat by fizzing the most with the acid and creating the most vapour.Calcium was the metal that dissolved completly not like the other metals and also had the highest temperature after the experiement about 45 degrees celsius which is a 6 degrees higher than magnesium and 15 degrees higher

  1. Rates of Reaction Investigation

    Production The uses of sulphuric acid are so varied that the volume of its production provides an approximate index of general industrial activity. American production of sulphuric acid exceeded 29 million tons annually in the early 1970s, a figure corresponding to a daily production of 1/3 kg (3/4 lb)

  2. What Factors Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate?

    In this case we are using hydrochloric acid, it's formula is HCl Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1, and chlorine 35.5= 36.5 One mole (1M) =36.5g of hydrochloric acid in 1000cc of solution. As the water molecules are very unreactive when added to calcium carbonate they will therefore restrict

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work