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The Reactivity Series.

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Introduction

The Reactivity Series. Aim: To find the order of reactivity using 5 metals; Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Iron and Calcium. I will find the order by adding each metal with Copper (ii) Sulphate, (Cu SO4), and finding there exothermic temperatures through out the experiment. Prediction: I think the order of reactivity for these five metals will be: Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Copper. This is because of where each metal is placed in the Periodic Table. Group 1 and 2 are more reactive than the transition metals, and the further you go down a group, the more reactive the metal gets. That is why Calcium is one period below Magnesium. Iron, Zinc and Copper are transition metals, meaning they come last. To find out the reactivity of the transition metals, you see how reactive each one is when it is added to an acid and water solution. No experiment is needed to be carried out with Copper, as Copper (ii) can not displace it's self in the solution - Copper (ii) Sulphate. The results will probably stay the same as the room temperature or even the temperature of the Copper (ii) Sulphate. Though, to make these experiments a fair test, and to be certain that my hypothesis is correct, I shall do the Copper experiment. I think the graphs will all start at room temperature and as soon as the Cu So4 is added the temperature will rise. ...read more.

Middle

5. The room temperature was the same (luckily) each time, though this could have had a large affect on the end results as well. 6. When repeating an experiment, don't change any thing. Results: For these sets of results I recorded the time in; 20 seconds, 40 seconds, 60 seconds, 80 seconds, 100 seconds, 120 seconds, 140 second, 160 seconds, 180 seconds. They are listed below. Calcium; Experiment 1. Experiment 2. Experiment 3. Average. 60 51 60 57.3 62 57 61 60 58 56 59 57.6 51 51 57 53 47 49 35 50.3 46 47 32 41.3 45 44 30 39.6 47 52 49 48.6 45 42 48 37.6 Magnesium; Experiment 1. Experiment 2. Experiment 3. Average. 27 26 26 26.3 26 27 28 26.8 26 27 28 27 26 27 29 27.5 26 27 31 28.5 27 28 31 29 28 28 31 29 28 28 32 29.5 29 28 32 29 Zinc; Experiment 1. Experiment 2. Experiment 3. Average. 29 29 27 28.3 29 29 28 28.6 29.5 29 28 28.8 29.5 29 28 28.8 29.5 29.5 28 28.9 29 29 28 28.6 29 29 28.5 28.8 29 29 28 28.6 29 29 28 28.6 Copper; Experiment 1. Experiment 2. Experiment 3. Average. 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Iron; Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment3 Average 23 22.5 23 22.8 23 22 ...read more.

Conclusion

The temperature stayed on room temperature (23C) and so making the line of best fit run through all points. Evaluation: The experiment's results were good for the use I needed them for. Though to explain the large leap between the Magnesium and the Calcium experiment was because of how I measured out the metal to begin with. Each metal has its own weight and mass meaning the reactions will be different. Each metal was measured out as a spatula and not by its atomic mass, if I knew how to do this I would have done it to make my experiments more correct. Also the accuracy of my results could have been a reason why some points were slightly off the line of best fit. I tried to make the reading correct and to an exact 20 second's between each reading, but of course it is not always possible to do this, this could also be a reason why some results were incorrect. I think my results are good enough to draw a fair conclusion for the order of reactivity of the five metals, but if I wanted the precise results of the temperatures of all the metals in the Reactivity Series, I would improve how I carried out my experiment. If it were possible, I would measure out each metal by its atomic mass, and I would do the experiment setup to a computer to get the most accurate results I could. The Order of Reactivity! By Kathryn Hinchcliffe. ...read more.

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