#### The Electrolysis Of Copper Sulphate Solution Using Copper Electrodes.

The Electrolysis Of Copper Sulphate Solution Using Copper Electrodes Planning I did some preliminary work to see which current values, and for how long to time. The results of this are in the tables below: Electrode-1A Mass before (g) Mass after (g) Mass change (g) Anode 1.38 1.30 -0.08 Cathode 1.35 1.65 +0.30This was done for 10 minutes. The mass lost at the anode should equal the mass gained at the cathode, which this doesn't, it has a percentage inaccuracy of 0.22¸ .30x100= 73% which is very inaccurate, This may be due to the current being too high, so the copper does not all transfer properly, but lies on the bottom of the beaker, therefore a lower current must be used, as in the table below: Electrode-0.1A Mass before (g) Mass after (g) Mass change (g) Anode 1.42 1.35 -0.07 Cathode 1.16 1.21 +0.05This was also one for ten minutes, and shows much more accurate results, as the percentage inaccuracy is only 0.02¸ 0.07x100=29%, which is still inaccurate, but is a lot better . This could be due to the current value being to low, so I will take a range of 5 results from 0.1Amp to 1Amp at 0.2Amp intervals. Each electrolysis will last 10 minutes, and each will be repeated twice so that a more accurate average can be taken. Variables * Temperature of the electrolyte * The concentration of the electrolyte * The separation of he electrodes * The size of the

• Word count: 2511
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating The Reactivity Of The Metals Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper And Calcium And Their Reaction With Hydrochloric Acid.

Investigating The Reactivity Of The Metals Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper And Calcium And Their Reaction With Hydrochloric Acid. Aim The aim of the investigation is to place five metals- zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium and copper- in order of reactivity based on the heat they give out when they react with dilute hydrochloric acid. Prediction I predict that calcium will be the most reactive because of its position in the periodic table and copper will also be the least reactive. I think that this will be the order of reactivity: . Calcium 2. Magnesium 3. Zinc 4. Iron 5. Copper All metals will react except copper. This is because all the other metals will displace hydrogen and copper doesn't. In displacement reactions the metal displaces the hydrogen from the acid. Hydrogen is above copper in the reactivity series so copper doesn't displace. Also copper is below hydrogen in the periodic table so its less reactive than hydrogen. A more reactive element is displacing a less reactive element from its compound. Elements that are reactive join to other elements with strong bonds. Elements such as copper, which has a low reactivity, join with other elements only with weak bonds. Metals above copper in the reactivity series reacted to form a salt and hydrogen. For example Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2 (From Chemistry Counts by Graham Hill) The zinc will displace

• Word count: 2522
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Nuclear Waste and Radiation

Nuclear Waste and Radiation Nuclear Radiation is the emanation of energy waves that are passed through space and any physical objects. From ultra violet rays from the sun, x-rays, transmission signals that are send to televisions and radios, are all part of the nuclear radiation, that are all common in our daily life. Although, if nuclear radiation gets exposed, or gets uncontrollable, it could harm human beings or any living thing for the matter. To this date, scientists fear that exposures of nuclear radiation could cost the lives of innocence and increase the risks of getting cancer. Since nuclear radiation has been developed and used to create atomic bomb and nuclear weapons, nuclear radiation is one of the most hazardous but beneficial discovery. There are four main types of radiation; alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays/x-rays and neutrons. Alpha particles are made up of two protons and two neutrons. It does not infiltrate far into a substance and can be stopped easily. Although it is proficient of breaking chemical bonds when in contact of a molecule due to its size, mass and charge. Whereas the beta particles can have either a negative or a positive charge but has a relatively small amount of mass. This indicates that the beta particles are equivalent to the electrons. Conversely to the alpha particles, the beta particles are light and small whereas the

• Word count: 1718
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### An Investigation Into the Factors Which Effect the Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate Solution.

An investigation into the factors which effect The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution. Task: My task is to find out how we can increase the mass of the cathode, and how different methods affect it. We know that by passing an electric current through an aqueous copper sulphate solution, that ions passing through this solution will cause anions to be dissolved into the solution from the anode, and deposited on the cathode. Diagram: Equipment needed: * 2 copper strips (anode and cathode) * 50ml Copper sulphate solution (aq) * 1 voltmeter * 1 power supply * 1 variable resistor Method: First, I shall weigh the anode and cathode, and label them. I shall then set up the experiment, as shown above, and set the current at 0.1 amps. I shall then leave it for 5 minutes for electrolysis to take place, before weighing the anode and cathode, and increasing the current to 0.2 amps, re-weighing the anode and cathode, then 0.3 amps and so on, up to 0.9 amps. I shall repeat this, but I do not feel that I shall have time to repeat it twice. To make sure that the amperage is set correctly as quickly as possible, I shall use the variable resistor. I shall watch the experiment continuously, to make sure that the anode and cathode do not touch, and in extreme circumstances, that the anode does not disintegrate due to electrolysis to the extent that it is no longer in the

• Word count: 1336
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Design an experiment to choose optimum conditions for Electroplating

Design an experiment to choose optimum conditions for Electroplating Introduction: Electroplating involves the careful control of conditions and of electrolyte. Some of the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the deposit formed in an electroplating cell are observed in this practical. Aim: The aim of this practical is to design and perform an experiment to determine the best and most favourable conditions for electroplating. Diagrams: anode: Cu (s) ------ Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e- (oxidation) cathode: Cu 2+ (aq) +2e- ------ Cu (s) (reduction) Independent variable: concentration of the copper(II) sulfate solution. Dependent variable: volume of the electrolyte solution, time, distance between the electrodes and the current. Method: . Using the scourer, we cleaned the copper strips. Measured and recorded their mass. 2. We adjusted the current value using the variable resistor. Placed both copper electrodes into the cell, making sure they were not in contact. Filled the cell with the copper(II) sulfate solution, and connected the anode to the positive terminal and the cathode to the negative terminal. 5. The power supply was turned on and the ammeter passed a current of 1.0A through the cell for 10 minutes. 6. Removed the

• Word count: 562
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Scientific understandment of Earth

Earth's structure Depth (km) Component Layer Density (g/cm3) 0-35 Crust 2.2-2.9 35-2890 Mantle 3.4-5.6 2890-5100 Outer core 9.9-12.2 5100-6378 Inner core 2.8-13.1 Scientific understanding of Earth's internal structure is based on extrapolations of physical evidence which has come from the first few kilometres of Earth's surface, samples brought to the surface from deeper depths by volcanic activity and analysis of seismic waves that pass through it. Also the force exerted by Earth's gravity can be used to calculate its mass, and by estimating the volume of the planet, its average density can be calculated. Astronomy can also calculate Earth's mass from its orbit and effects on nearby planetary bodies. Observation of rocks, bodies of water and the atmosphere allow estimation of the mass, volume and density of rocks to a certain depth. There is a danger in the Earth's mantle because there is a vast reservoir of carbon stashed beneath the Earth's crust and it could be released by a major volcanic eruption, unleashing a mass extinction of a kind that last occurred 200 million years ago. The worry is that if just a part of this gigantic reservoir is quickly released as carbon dioxide it that could create a runaway greenhouse effect. Earth's Atmosphere Past atmosphere: early atmosphere was probably formed from the gases given out by volcanoes. It is believed

• Word count: 763
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### Fire safety research coursework. Experiment making a fire extinguisher

A fire needs oxygen, heat and fuel. The most common causes of fires are: Open flames-candles, matches, cigarettes. Arson-purposely setting fires to buildings and other things Electrical equipment-damaged electrical equipment, overloaded plugs Cooking- unattended cooking appliances A fire extinguisher is an device which contains chemicals that can be sprayed onto a small fire to control or extinguish it. Different colours are used for different types of fire extinguishers: Water-Red This fire extinguisher is used the most and is used for class A fires. Foam-Cream These are more expensive than water extinguishers but can be used for two types of fires. These two types of fires are A+B. Dry powder-Blue This fire extinguisher can be used on fires class A,B&C but they are best for fires class B. Carbon dioxide (CO2) - Black A black fire extinguisher is ideal for class E fires but can also be used for fires of class B but when these are used there is a chance that the fire could re-ignite. Halon-Green - This fire extinguisher is no longer legal except for a few exceptions such as the police and Aircraft. They are rechargeable and contain recycled Halon 1211 with Nitrogen as a propellant. They are used for fires class D. Wet chemical fire extinguishers are designed for class F fires but are also effective for class A fires. Types of fires: Class

• Word count: 842
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### An essay to discuss the relationship between the position of a metal in the Reactivity Series and the method of extraction of that metal from its ore

An essay to discuss the relationship between the position of a metal in the Reactivity Series and the method of extraction of that metal from its ore In this essay I am going to research metals and their methods of extraction from their ores. I will then compare metals lower in the Reactivity Series to those higher in the Reactivity Series to observe the relationships to their methods of extraction from their ores. I will also observe the times of the historical discovery of the metals and relate them to their methods of extraction from their ores. Gold was discovered naturally many years ago, in the sea, when searching for flint for tools. However gold was too soft for tools, so it wasn't very useful. Gold is a very unreactive metal found very low down in the Reactivity Series, which is very easy to extract from its ore. It is also found native in and by streams, which makes it expensive as it is difficult to find as you have to extract from sea-water all across the world. Copper, also unreactive, is higher in the Reactivity Series than Gold. It was also found native in streams and is hard, which made it good for tools those years ago. However copper is scarce so it can also be extracted from its ore, malachite, which is a copper carbonate. Copper was extracted in this way quite by accident, many years ago, when clay pots were heated over a fire. The fire was

• Word count: 1314
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### We are being advised to reduce our carbon footprint. Discuss the significance of this for the individual and for industry.

We are being advised to reduce our carbon footprint. Discuss the significance of this for the individual and for industry. What is a carbon footprint for an individual? 1 "A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, and in particular climate change. It relates to the amount of greenhouse gases produced in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating and transportation etc. The carbon footprint is a measurement of all greenhouse gases we individually produce and has units of tonnes (or kg) of carbon dioxide equivalent." basically everything we do in our day to day lives affects our carbon footprint from sending a text message to driving a car, and it is starting to take its toll on the world. Why should you bother trying to reduce your carbon footprint? The answer to this is quite simple if you don't bother trying to reduce our carbon footprint the CO2 will build up in the atmosphere and the earth will heat up, causing all sorts of problems from ice caps melting to diseases being able to thrive in places that they couldn't live before, eventually causing life on earth to change altogether. 2 "Our industrial society is producing greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, which trap heat in the earth's atmosphere, which causes global warming or climate change as it's become known more recently. This in this

• Word count: 1963
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science

#### To answer the question of weather or not hydrogen can be the fuel of the future, we first must understand what hydrogen is and to find out how it can be used to create energy.

Index Page 2 - Index Page 3 - Introduction Page 3 - What is Hydrogen? Page 3-4 - history of Hydrogen Page 4 - Why do we need another energy source Page 4-5 - Scientific Theory Page 5 - Fuel cells in Depth Page 6 - The Downsides Page 6 - Conclusion Is Hydrogen the fuel of the Future? In today's fast paced world we always try to better the current traditional things, whether it be a test score, A lap time or in this case the source of our electricity. With the dawn of the green movement, the focus is to find cleaner, more efficient and cost effective methods to keep our society running as expected. There are many potential methods, and with billions being spent on them each year in the hope of finding the perfect energy source. In the following case study, I discuss if Hydrogen could be this perfect source of clean, efficient and cost effective energy. What is hydrogen? To answer the question of weather or not hydrogen can be the fuel of the future, we first must understand what hydrogen is and to find out how it can be used to create energy. Hydrogen is a naturally occurring gas found commonly in great abundance. Throughout the known universe. It's so common that it makes up 75% of the universe, by volume, and it appears in a large number of compounds, especially various organic materials such as water . The Atomic number of hydrogen Is one, and is simply

• Word count: 1223
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Science