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The role of DNA in protein synthesis

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The role of DNA in protein synthesis Introduction to DNA DNA is a polymer of monomers called nucleotides. It has been found in chromosomes which are contained in the nucleus. Many observations contributed to the evidence from which the structure of DNA was eventually deduced by Watson and Crick. DNA is stand for the deoxyribose nucleic acids. It is made from two strand of nucleic acid wound into a double helix. Nucleic acid are macromolecules with relative molecular masses ranging from 10 to 10 . They are biult up of nucleotide subunites, which join together forming long unbranched chains. A nucleotide of DNA is made up of : > a pentose sugar - deoxyribose (C5H10O4) > a phosphate group (H3PO4) ...read more.


The second phase is the conversion of that information into polypeptides on the ribosomes (translation). The translation of the code in triplets or codons occurs when tRNA molecules with a complementary anticodon attach to the ribosome leaving a specific amino acid. the mRNA strand moves along to translate the next coden to form a polypeptide strand. The last phase is called translocation which is a process of the ribosome move on the mRNA. These three stages involve another nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid (RNA). There are three types of RNA: mRNA - messenger RNA is 3-5% of the total RNA in a cell, which is formed in the nucleus during the process of transcriotion and which carries the instructions from the DNA to the ribosomes. ...read more.


Protein synthesis relies on the effective communication of the coded information held in the DNA to the sites of protein manufacture, the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Since DNA is part of larger structures (chromosomes), which are unable to move from the nucleus, intermediate messenger molecules are needed. These are messenger RNA molecules. To begin with, the DNA duplex unzips to expose the base sequence on the coding strand. RNA nucleotides then move in and align themselves according to the rules of base pairing (A-U and G-C) with U replacing T in the RNA molecule. During transcription only the coding parts of the DNA are copied (the exons). Non coding parts or introns are ignored. The completed mRNA molecule detaches from the DNA template and exits the nucleus via the nuclear pores, moving into the cytoplasm. That's the whole process of transcription. DNA is very important in the stage of transcription. Donate by Phoenix zhang Phoenix Zhang ...read more.

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