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To Compare the Concentration of the Enzyme Catalase in Plant v. Animal v. Fungal Tissues

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Introduction

As-Level Biology Coursework -Investigation 1 To Compare the Concentration of the Enzyme Catalase in Plant v. Animal v. Fungal Tissues Plan Catalase is a widespread enzyme, which breaks down the waste product of metabolism. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a metabolic waste product, which is toxic and must be removed by cells. Catalase is the enzyme used by cells to remove H2O2. The reaction is as shown below: Catalase enzyme H2O2 --------------------------- H2O + 1/2O2 Hypothesis My hypothesis is that animal and fungal tissues will have a higher concentration of catalase than plant tissues. Catalase is the enzyme that is used to break down H2O2, which is a metabolic waste product, therefore the higher the metabolic rate of an organism the more waste product it will produce, which therefore means the higher the concentration of catalase the organism would contain. Metabolism is the collective term for all the chemical reactions of life. An organism's metabolic rate is the amount of energy used by the organism to maintain its living function through the chemical reactions of life. Therefore, how an organism obtains the products needed to maintain its living function would affect its metabolic rate. Animals and fungi are different from plants in that they are heterotrophic whereas plants are autotrophic. This means that animal and fungi feed on organic matter obtained from other organisms. ...read more.

Middle

The experiment was repeated until two sets of data had been obtained from all the different types of tissue (dried yeast, fresh yeast, potato, celery, muscle and liver). The equipment that was used was chosen for a number of reasons. The gas syringe was used due to the fact that it was the precise and accurate apparatus available for the measurement of volume of gas produce in an experiment. The use of the plastic syringe and two hole bung in the test tube was the best and quickest method of ensuring a relatively airtight condition, so as to allow no oxygen to escape once produce, and therefore more accurate results. Modification During the first set of experiments, it was discovered that 5g of tissue was too much. The reaction was too strong, thereby causing liquid to bubble up the test tube and then into the gas syringe unless the gas syringe was disconnected from the test tube. If liquid entered the gas syringe it no longer functioned properly therefore the gas syringe had to be disconnected. This means that the experiment had to be restarted from the beginning. Therefore, it was decided that the investigation should continue with only 2.5g of tissue being used. Results Volume (in cm3) of O2 produced at Tissue 30sec 60sec 90sec 120sec 150sec 180sec Dried yeast 15 19 20 21 21.5 21.5 Dried yeast 16 20 20.5 21 21.5 21.5 Dried ...read more.

Conclusion

This would have an effect on the experiment as it would allow some of the oxygen produce to escape, therefore the readings obtain would not be precise, as it does not account for the complete volume of oxygen produce. The biggest limitation of the experiment was the time constraints. To obtain to sets of results from each type of tissue required 12 experiments to be carried out, this added with the 3 which were discounted due to the problem with the amount of tissues used meant that there was no time to repeat the experiment or to test other types of tissue. Overall, the investigation does appear to produce some evidence to support my hypothesis that animal and fungi tissues would have a higher concentration of catalyse than plant tissues. However, numerous repeats of these experiments, as well as further experiments with a wider range of tissues, e.g. multi-cellular fungi, at a wider range of times, would clearly be needed before any firm conclusion could be drawn. For instance, the range of tissues could be expanded to include not only multi -cellular fungi, as mention above, but also flowering plant and non-flowering plant tissues, as well as, a wider range of animal tissues, not only from different parts of the animal but also from different animals. For this particular experiment, however, the best improvement would be more repeats at a wider range of time, e.g. every 20 seconds instead of every 3o seconds. ...read more.

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