• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To compare the efficiency of different alcohols as fuel sources

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Tom Stathers 11law At1 Chemistry: Using alcohols as fuel sources Aim To compare the efficiency of different alcohols as fuel sources Background knowledge Alcohols are a closely related group of molecules that can be used as fuel sources, for example spirit burners to provide light and heat. One of the alcohols to be tested is ethanol, which is made from fermented sugar. All alcohols belong to a chemical family the general formula is CH + OH When any fuel burns it releases heat energy into the surroundings. (exothermic reaction as it releases heat energy). When Alcohol Burns it releases Co2 and H20. To make fuel burn you need to supply it with heat. The heat breaks up the molecules into atoms. When the Fuel is burnt the atoms join together to make new bonds. I will be testing ethanol, methanol, butanol and propanol to see which is the most efficient. To do this I need to find out how much energy has been burnt in the reaction. I will work out the heat of combustion as shown below. The example I have worked out is butanol. ...read more.

Middle

(2min) This is a list of the things I will keep the same: * The alcohol in the spirit burner e.g. methanol, Ethanol, butanol, propanol) * The amount of alcohol is specific to each burner used Apparatus * Clamp * Copper Beaker * Clamp stand * Boss * Spirit burner x4 * Heat proof mat * 100cm3 measuring cylinder * Water * Stop clock * Weighing scales * Thermometer * Bunsen burner * Splint Diagram Method 1. Set up equipment like in the diagram 2. Measure 100cm3 of water in the measuring cylinder and pour it into the copper calorimeter 3. Record the temperature of the water 4. Choose a spirit burner; make a note of the alcohol inside and the mass with the lid on. Light the spirit burner and place under it under the copper beaker 5. Stir the water gently all the way through the experiment with the thermometer 6. After 2 minutes record the temperature of the water and the mass of the spirit burner with the lid and fuel (Note the timing is incorporated into my experiment because I lost my results and I could only get one from another science group. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ways of improving my experiment * To make me results more accurate I could use more accurate equipment and make sure only the variables alter only (alcohols and water). * Keeping the distances exactly the same between the burner and the copper beaker. I could have use a sort of shield around the spirit burner and the copper beaker, which would have kept the heat from the burner directly concentrated on the copper baker giving a much more accurate reading. * I could have tested more alcohols and different structure types e.g. (butanol isomer 2 and propanol structure 2) this would have given me a chance to see if any other alcohols are better or worse than the ones I have tested * I also could have tried altering the water levels this might have produced different results. I could also have investigated other factors that affect the heat of combustion such as length of the wick. These factor could all be written into or improved on in experiments to come NOTE : The timing is incorporated into my experiment because I lost my results and I could only get one from another science group. Who used timing in their experiment) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. THE LINK BETWEEN CARBON ATOMS IN A FUEL AND THE ENERGY IT RELEASES.

    amount of water and how much the alcohol raises the water temperature must be controlled. FAIRTEST A fair test can only occur when I keep all the variables the same to ensure that the following must be kept in consideration.

  2. Investigating the Combustion of Alcohols

    From these results, I obtained an average which was used in the calculations. However other factors such as any condensation of the alcohol back into the spirit burner and incomplete combustion were not taken into account and therefore not measured.

  1. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    In order to make sure that my results would be even more reliable I would need to conduct the experiment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere so that there would be excess oxygen for complete combustion to occur. I would also need to reduce the distance between the flame and the bottom of the calorimeter.

  2. "Could Sainsbury's add value to their business by using an alternative fuel for their ...

    According to Kleiner (1991), many large firms are saving money, and gaining competitive advantage through promoting their products and themselves as environmentally sound. Kassaye (2001) gives many more examples of firms that have made efforts to be perceived as 'greening': "Procter & Gamble, McDonald's, S.C.

  1. Molar Heat of Combustion of Alcohols

    Finally I calculated the practical heat of combustion using the formula: Energy Supplied to Water (J)=Specific Heat Capacity (J/gOC)*Mass (g)*Temperature Increase(OC) We then use the energy supplied to water to work out the energy for one Mole of the substance.

  2. This is a mini-project on fuel - topics include petrol and fossil fuels.

    Biomass On a global scale, biomass - vegetable matter used as a source of energy - meets a significant proportion of our energy needs. In Ethiopia, Tanzania and Nepal, for instance, it accounts for over 90%. In most other developing countries, wood, crop residues and animal dung provide over 40% of the fuel burnt.

  1. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    In cm. * Measure the temperature of the water in ?C. * Weigh the first fuel burner which contains CH3OH and record the mass in grams, (g). * Place the fuel burner under the boiling tube and light the wick.

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    they can be rolled into thin sheets (e.g. magnesium ribbon, copper foil) 5. They are ductile, i.e. they can be pulled into thin wires (e.g. copper, silver, gold) 6. They are sonorous, i.e. they make a sounds when hit (e.g. copper, iron) Metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work