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To compare the mass of ammonium chloride to its temperature change when water is added to it.

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Introduction

To compare the mass of ammonium chloride to its temperature change when water is added to it. Aim: To see the temperature change when different amounts of ammonium chloride are added to water. Resources: Before doing the experiment I looked at the book "The Material world" and "GCSE revision guide" and have found information on endothermic reactions. I have highlighted the relevant information in my scientific knowledge. This information will help me make a prediction. Scientific Knowledge: There are two types of reactions, exothermic and endothermic reactions. I will be concentrating on endothermic reactions as the reaction I am to plan is going to be endothermic. An endothermic reaction is when energy is gained, and therefore the temperature of the reaction decreases when the two substances are mixed. So when a solid dissolves, energy is used to break up the giant lattice. The energy used is greater than the energy released by the water molecules that surround the dissolved ions, therefore temperature falls. ...read more.

Middle

Variable: The variable in the experiment will be the mass of the ammonium chloride, which I will be putting random amounts of in to the water so that I obtain good results to make a graph. The volume of the water in which the ammonium chloride will react with will remain constant at all times (50ml). We will be doing the experiment in a classroom so the temperature should not change and will remain constant so that heat doesn't affect the experiment. The same amount of stirs of the solution will be applied to each test, each time so that we help each reaction the same, in helping the break up of the lattice, so that it is fair. The thermometer each time will be left in the water before the ammonium chloride is added for a few minutes to make sure it is at the correct temperature. Fair test: To make this a fair test we will use electronic weighing machines to weight out the ammonium chloride so that the mass is recorded properly and is correct to 2 decimal places. ...read more.

Conclusion

A stirring rod, to stir the solution. Polystyrene cup, to contain the solution and act as an insulator. A glass beaker, to hold the polystyrene cup securely. A thermometer, to measure the temperature before and after the reaction. A spatula, to obtain the ammonium chloride from its container on to the scales. Ammonium chloride. Diagram: Method: 1. Set up apparatus as shown. 2. Now measure out 50ml cubed of distilled water and pour it in the polystyrene cup. 3. Now measure the temperature of the water, and record it. 4. Now weight out different amounts of ammonium chloride starting with little and then more. 5. Now record the mass of the ammonium chloride and tip it in to the polystyrene cup and stir with the stirring rod. 6. You keep stirring for 1 or 2 minutes and watch for the lowest temperature the thermometer gets to and record that result. 7. Do this for each mass 3 times and work out an average temperature change. 8. Do 2-7 for at least 6 different masses and display them in a table like this, why p[aln is good Graph: Analysis: Evaluation: James Allchin ...read more.

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