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To investigate the affect of Pectinase on the amount of juice produced from a stewed apple.

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Introduction

Planning Aim - To investigate the affect of Pectinase on the amount of juice produced from a stewed apple. I will investigate and explore the factors, which affect the rate at which juice is coming out of the stewed apple. There are many factors, which determine the rate at which reactions take place. The factors include temperature, concentration, surface area or pressure (if the substance is a gas) and a catalyst. However in this particular experiment I have chosen to investigate the rate of reaction when the concentration is the variable involved. Scientific Theories The theory of collisions - Substances are made up particles. The particles in a particular substance can be atoms, ions or molecules. If two or more reactants collide with sufficient energy then a chemical reaction takes place producing a product. The particles must collide together hard enough to break the chemical bonds, kinetic energy is needed for this to occur. The initial energy or minimum energy that particles of reactants must have for them to react must have for them to react when they collide. The rate of reaction depends on how many reacting particles have this minimum energy. Heat is sometimes needed to start a reaction, which is referred to the activation energy. In many reactions often the products have less energy than the reactants. The more collisions and the harder the collisions between particles in a given time will result in the reaction speeding up. Temperature - Faster collisions are only obtained by increasing the temperature. When the temperature is increased all the particles move quicker and collide more often. This will therefore speed up the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

> Stop timing after 6 minutes. > Repeat the experiment for the other different concentrations. Equipment Used Obtaining Evidence Results Tables Concentration of Pectinase to water: 5:0 4:1 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 3.2 2 4.6 3 6.3 4 7.4 5 8.2 6 9.1 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 2.6 2 3.8 3 4.6 4 5.3 5 5.9 6 6.6 3:2 2:3 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 2.3 2 3.3 3 4.1 4 4.8 5 5.4 6 6 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 1.4 2 2.1 3 2.7 4 3.3 5 3.6 6 4.1 1:4 0:5 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 1.1 2 1.9 3 2.4 4 2.8 5 3.2 6 3.7 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 0.4 2 0.8 3 1.1 4 1.4 5 1.8 6 2.1 The experiment was repeated again to get accurate results and averages. 2nd set of results 5:0 4:1 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 3 2 4.8 3 6.1 4 7.2 5 8 6 9 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 2.8 2 4.2 3 5 4 5.8 5 6.4 6 6.8 3:2 2:3 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 2.1 2 3.2 3 4.2 4 4.9 5 5.2 6 6.3 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 1 2 1.8 3 2.3 4 2.3 5 3.3 6 3.9 1:4 0:5 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 0.9 2 1.4 3 1.9 4 2.4 5 2.9 6 3.3 Minutes Juice (cm�) 1 0.3 2 0.6 3 0.9 4 1.2 5 1.4 6 1.9 This table shows the average set of results. This was done in order to get the most accurate results. Concentration 5:0 4:1 3:2 2:3 1:4 0:5 1 3.1 2,7 2.2 1.2 1 0.35. 2 4.7 4 3.25. ...read more.

Conclusion

> Incorrect methods may have been used. > The person doing the experiment changed therefore there may have been different methods used. Another possible factor that may have altered the results from the general pattern is that the experiment was done on different days therefore the temperature of the reaction changed and this may have affected the enzyme activity. If the Pectinase was defected and not fresh this may have caused error in results. We could have made our results more reliable by repeating them more time and could have used a larger range of concentrations. Another factor we could have achieved in order to make our results more reliable is for the same person to do all the experiments. Improvements could have been made to the apparatus as a more accurate stop clock could have been used, and the experiment could have been repeated more times. The same Pectinase bottle should have been used for all the experiments, as the some bottles may have been older than the others, which also would have altered the results. To further this experiment I could investigate various fruits with the Pectinase enzyme, and explore which of the fruits would produce juice at the quickest rate. I would investigate with this with the following fruits banana, apple and Orange. I could also investigate this at various temperatures. From this I would predict that the higher the temperature the faster the rate at which the juice comes out. This would however only be true until around 50�C, after this temperature the Pectinase enzyme would denature. I would also predict that the orange would produce the most juice in comparison to the other fruits as it has higher percentage of water content. ...read more.

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