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To Investigate The Effect Of Varying Concentration On The Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

To Investigate The Effect Of Varying Concentration On The Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid Plan Aim In this investigation I will react marble chips and varying concentrations of Hydrochloric acid and measure the rate of reaction to see what the effect of different concentrations have on the rate of reaction. Equation I already know that carbonates react with acids to produce Water, Carbon Dioxide and a salt: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) => CO2(g) + CaCl2 (aq) + H2O(l) Method Equipment I will need : * A gas syringe * A bung and tube * A conical flask * Marble chips * Hydrochloric acid (2mol/dm3) * A measuring cylinder * A retort stand and clamp * Beakers * Distilled water * Weighing scales * Weighing boat * Stopwatch I will setup the experiment like this: I know this set-up works because I have previously done an experiment with marble chips in which hydrogen gas was being collected. ...read more.

Middle

* Density of Gas/Solid reactants * Amount of reactant * Ea of reactants (presence of catalysts) Prediction I have done a previous experiment in which one molar HCL(aq) and two molar HCL(aq) were reacted and the two molar reaction was always twice the rate of the one molar acid. Based on this I predict that as concentration doubles then so does the rate of reaction. I think this because if the concentration doubles, then the number of ions of HCl(aq) doubles. Therefore collisions occur twice as frequently, and the rate of reaction doubles. Therefore if the concentration doubles, the time taken for 50cm3 of CO2 halves. Obtaining Evidence Moles of HCl(aq) Time 1(s) Time 2 (s) Time 3 (s) Average (s) 2 10.45 9.83 10.92 10.4 1.5 15.29 14.57 15.08 14.98 1 19.75 20.65 19.66 20.02 0.5 41.03 40.63 40.38 40.68 Results Analysis You can see from this graph that as concentration decreases, the time increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

However it can be concluded that it takes about ten seconds for 50 cm3 of gas to be collected in a two molar solution and twice as long when the concentration is doubled. I think I have just enough evidence to draw a conclusion, I would prefer to have two or three times as much evidence but that is not possible. As far as the method goes it was quite sound apart form the timing set-up. When I was starting the experiment, I had to add the marble chips, put the bung on, and start the watch at the same time. This gave inaccuracies in the times. Other problems arose in practise that I could not help. Firstly, as the reaction occurred, it produced heat. This heat sped up the reaction therefore making the fast reactions faster. Also because I shook the reaction by hand some reactions were shaken more than others, causing them to react faster. Also the marble chips were of different sizes. This meant that the smaller ones had a larger surface area to volume ratio and reacted more quickly than bigger ones. Standard sizes chips would stop this. ...read more.

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