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What affects the rate of reaction?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning (Also see Investigation Planning Sheet.) Background Information I have been set a task to investigate factors which affect rates of reaction, using calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. These are good reactants to use, as carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced and this release of gas can be monitored using a gas syringe. Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Water + Carbon carbonate acid chloride dioxide CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 What affects the rate of reaction? Rates of reaction can be explained using the Collision Theory, which has two main principles: * Particles must collide before a reaction can take place. * Particles must collide with enough energy for a reaction to take place. If particles collide and react, then a successful collision has taken place. However, if particles collide, but without enough energy to react, then an unsuccessful collision has taken place. There are four main factors that affect rates of reaction, and these can all be explained by increasing the number of collisions between the reacting particles: * TEMPERATURE increases the rate of reaction. Temperature has two effects in increasing rates of reaction: 1) ...read more.

Middle

appropriate measuring cylinders * Keep volume of 'acid + water' constant - 20cm3 * Measure accurately * Keep gas syringe perpendicular to conical flask Prediction I predict that with increasing concentration, the rate of reaction will also increase. The evidence for this prediction is the Collision Theory. This states that concentration (also known as pressure) increases the number of reactant particles in a given volume, which makes collisions between reactants more likely. This will consequently increase the number of collisions, thus increasing the rate of reaction. Also, previously in Science, I have done a similar experiment using two concentrations of hydrochloric acid. The results are given below: Time/s Volume of CO2/cm3 Volume of CO2/cm3 15 0 0 30 3 7 45 5 14 60 8 23 75 12 35 90 15 46 105 16 57 120 16 68 135 18 80 150 19 90 165 19 98 180 20 Off scale This is also evidence for my prediction and is a secondary source of information. Observations My first experiment: Time/s Vol. CO2/cm3 Vol. CO2/cm3 Vol. CO2/cm3 Vol. CO2/cm3 Vol. CO2/cm3 15 8 5 3 2 1 30 17 11 6 4 3 45 26 18 9 5 4 60 35 24 13 7 6 75 45 31 17 9 ...read more.

Conclusion

Further tests using different apparatus or different methods could be used to verify the results, and hopefully eliminate the chance of any anomalies. One way of doing this could be to use a mass balance instead of a gas syringe and bung. This would, however, increase the chance of human error, as an extra calculation would be required to establish the amount of carbon dioxide lost from the conical flask. An alternative method could be to use magnesium and a mass balance instead of calcium carbonate and a conical flask. I could improve my experiment by doing a number of things: * Change the timescale over which I conduct the experiment. This would give a wider picture of the overall trend of the results. * Use a different acid for conducting the experiment. This would help to determine whether my conclusion is appropriate for all acids, and therefore, more rates of reaction. * Repeat the experiment more times. This improves accuracy, emphasises anomalies and helps to give a wider picture of the overall trend. The secondary sources I have used are my previous experiment results in Science (page 7), and various diagrams from 'EDEXCEL Modular Science: The Revision Guide - Book One' (pages 3 and 4). ...read more.

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