• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

Systems of Sociology Theory based in the French Revolution era when Napoleon was defeated and the Burbons returned to the throne.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CHAPTER 6 Compte Systems of Sociology Theory based in the French Revolution era when Napoleon was defeated and the Burbons returned to the throne. Theory based in the fact that the society had evolved to a stage where neither the monarchy, military or church had the societal clout it once had. * he saw this change in society to be as a result of a change in collective thought of the people; that is their "stages in the search for understanding". Law of 3 Stages : Theological, Metaphysical, Positive Society(pg.122) In each stage, the typical forms of organization of society and social institutions can be reflected in the people's development of distinctive types of knowledge and beliefs. For example, if people believe that having sex outside of making babies (for pleasure :)) is a sin, then the church will have maximum influence over people. Theological Stage: think (Mayas, Incas, Inuit) - dominated by primitive religious thought - explain phenomena via the supernatural (gods and spirits) - society based on intuition, sentiment and feelings (must appease the gods to avoid disaster) - ruled by priests and military (general or war lord) - moral structure centered around blood ties Metaphysical Stage: think (Victorian English society or French Aristocratic society) - move from primitive religious thought to a limited development of CRITICAL THOUGHT - belief in 1 God or single diety (montheism) and a search for ultimate reality - explain phenomena in terms of abstract forces not spirits (fate and destiny) - here you get a more unified concept of SOCIETY because people now share a common belief system - society organized based on the idea of the state (as opposed to the individual) and its defense or protection from others Positive Society: think (Industrial Society) - all thought is critical and open to analysis, i.e. based on SCIENTIFIC EMPIRICISM - rejects religion and abstraction as the sole means of explaining phenomena. ...read more.

Middle

Major cause of anomie is forced or unjust division of labour. To fix ==> 1. division should correspond to natural talents of people (free occupational choice) . 2. when people enter contracts they should be equal and the contract fair and entered into freely (people shouldn't be forced). * There should be no ascribed status because being born into a social position sets up an inherent inequality in contracts. Another cause of anomie is Fractionalized work i.e. when a task is broken down into discrete components e.g. assembly line work. Here persons become divorced from the process when they are unable to see the task through. This leads to loosing feelings of solidarity and continuity i.e. persons can't see themselves as part of the organization and there is a loss of pride in one's work because it has become uninteresting. REGULATION = CURE FOR ANOMIE (look at Laissez Faire systems and regulation pg.129 for solution for Anomie) 2 Studies done be Durkheim to investigate his theories of the nature of social solidarity and anomie: 1. SUICIDE and 2. RELIGION. Suicide Hypothesis: Human happiness depends upon social cohesion therefore when social solidarity breaks down or weakens, levels of unhappiness within a community increases. * to make his study empirical and scientific, he used SUICIDE RATES as concrete observable phenomena to infer intangibles like unhappiness and cohesion (both subjective states). Suicide = "intentional self-death by any action known to have that effect". It is the number of people per 100,000 who intentionally take their own lives. * SUICIDE RATE = SOCIAL FACT His Theory: Specific kinds of social conditions that lead to a weakening of social solidarity engender increasing unhappiness and higher suicide rates. 3 Types of Suicide: 1. Egoistic Suicide 2. Anomic Suicide 3. Altruistic Suicide Egoistic: This type of suicide occurs when people have poor or weak social bonds to their society i.e. when a society is poorly integrated. Durkheim used religious affiliation and marital status as indicators of how strong social bonds were. ...read more.

Conclusion

In your reading, look at Weber and the differences between Puritanism (Methodism) and Calvinism. Pg140-142 Then at how religion can be used as a TOOL for responsible social action re:Social Gospel in Canada and Liberation Theology. Religion as Social Construction In PET and Functionalism, religion is seen as a social institution In Interpretive Theory, religion is seen as an ongoing accomplishment i.e. something that people DO rather than HAVE. - So religion is no longer a list of elements that make up religious life BUT it now is a question of how people in their daily lives make for themselves a sense of religious identity and how it is interpreted as tradition. - Ancient practices and beliefs themselves are social constructions since they themselves have been stressed in order to legitimate current practices. PET and Int. Theorists agree that Constructionists and Marxist analysis of religion both draw attention to the practical and political significance of identity formation through religion (look at Menonites and Natives). Feminist Critique of Religion Fem& PET==>both believe that religion (dominant ideas and values within a society) provides justification for the ruling class position. * feminists switch focus from economic classes to PATRIARCHY * According to Engels, male subjugation over is the first oppressor/oppressed relationship and the foundation of all others (class, property etc.). Ironically, it is the last form of oppression to be fought against. * Religion serves to perpetuate the subordination of women by dulling them into submission and killing the will to change things * Judeo/Christian concept of 'God' the father serves to oppress women. It creates a general acceptance of the 'natural' superiority of men and this view is reflected through the course of historical Christian writing to contemporary policy. * The history of Christianity is therefore the history of Christian MISOGYNY (woman hating) * These pronouncements however are social constructions (created by men who had their particular biases and views of how society should be)because scripture tells us Jesus was the first feminist by including women in his preaching and teaching :). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Compare and Contrast 'Overcoat' By Ghulam Abbas and 'The Blue Donkey' By Suniti Namjoshi ...

    There are only long paragraphs in the entire story in which the longest is twenty-five lines long. This story has also two parts, first where she is rejected and told to move on if she is not of the purest or silkiest white and later on when she is given blue flowers, as she was beautiful because she was herself.

  2. Discuss the concept of 'Double Colonization'; how do postcolonial women writers contest both patriarchy ...

    Religion played a major role in forming and conditioning roles of Indian women. The traditional image of 'Radha', who devoted her whole life for a polygamous male, became the ideal. The woman thus remained trapped in an inescapable condition. Durga, on the other hand is a figure of majestic splendour, both as the Divine Mother and the Demon Slayer.

  1. A-Level Sociology Theory + Methods Revision.

    Thus, the solidarity of the community is maintained by the "sameness" of everyone; everyone is socialised into a similar culture. In primitive societies there is a form of "mechanical solidarity" at work. Society functions as a relatively close-knit affair. As society becomes more complex, through the "division of labour", mechanical solidarity breaks down + is replaced by organic solidarity.

  2. The following essay will use the ideas of Durkheim to construct my social biography ...

    They are no longer held together by strict traditional moral social regulations((Johnson, 1986 ). Another term which Durkheim coined is anomie, which is a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals (.(Johnson, 1986) Fewer restrictions are imposed on people in modern societies and whereas Durkheim acknowledges the

  1. What do sociologists mean by culture? What functions does it perform in society? How, ...

    There are many different kinds of subcultures varying from ethnic groups, to football supporters. One person could be a member of one or a hundred different subcultures (Giddens, 1997). The functions of culture in society Culture is learnt and taught to us in socialization, the learning of culture.

  2. The Glass Ceiling

    Also, some firms tend to hire men more often than women for many reasons. A man is known to be more aggressive than a woman is. Some firms tent to advance more men than women and segregate the different occupations that exist in the firm by their sex.

  1. Primary Sources and Social Change in the industrial revolution

    In 1839 Thomas Carlyle noted that "A feeling generally exists that the condition and disposition of the working classes is a rather ominous matter at present: that something ought to be said, something ought to be dome in regard to it."

  2. This essay will explain the functionalist, Marxist and Social action theories of race and ...

    Capitalist nations typically use this 'reserve army' during periods of economic success and high employment, when there is a significant labour shortage. This process, further increases the divide between the rich and poor nations as these dynamic immigrants, who's childhood was paid for and maintained by their native land, are

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work